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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
József Klem
,
Dóra Dömötör
,
György Schneider
,
Tamás Kovács
,
András Tóth
, and
Gábor Rákhely

The emergence of the multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. Among the possible options one of the most promising is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages. Over the recent decades, increasing amount of literature has validated the use of bacteriophages for therapy and prophylaxis against drug-resistant staphylococci. This work attempts to review the current knowledge on bacteriophages and their usages for treatment of staphylococcal diseases.

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(57.7%) and tetracyclines (45.5%) in humans. These levels of resistance are classified as high [ 18 ] which supports and highlights the need to develop alternative antimicrobials. Essential oils, especially their phenolic compounds, revealed to have an

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Abstract

As antimicrobial resistance poses a globally rising health problem, the identification of alternative antimicrobial agents is urgently required. The short chain fatty acid propionate which is physiologically produced by the gut microbiota constitutes a promising molecule given that it has been widely used as a cosmetics and food preservative due to its antimicrobial effects. This literature survey aims to determine the most recent state of knowledge about the antimicrobial and immune-modulatory properties of propionate. Both in vitro and in vivo studies published between 2011 and 2020 confirmed the ability of propionate to inhibit the growth of several cellular pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative multi-drug resistant bacteria and fungi. In addition, heterogenous immune-modulatory and in particular, anti-inflammatory effects of propionate could be assessed involving a diverse signaling network that needs further comprehension. In conclusion, our literature survey provides evidence that propionate displays a plethora of health-beneficial including antimicrobial and immune-modulatory effects. Future research is required to further unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms and to set the basis for in vivo infection and clinical studies to broaden the path of propionate as a promising adjunct antibiotics-independent option in the combat of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria.

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infections or combined with other antimicrobials for disseminated and CNS nocardiosis. Alternative antimicrobial agents used in case of allergy, include linezolid, amikacin, minocycline, moxifloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Linezolid has been

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develop new antibiotics and alternative antimicrobial strategies. Mupirocin is the choice of drug for managing the proliferation of S. aureus isolates within populations and healthcare facilities, as well as mitigating the incidence of major infections

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acquisition of bacterial strains [ 20 ]. Therefore, the development of alternative antimicrobial-independent approaches for prevention and therapy of infections is utmost appreciated to help out the above-mentioned and in many cases fatal dilemma. The

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