This paper examines some of the figures through which ambivalence is transposed into ambiguity. It raises the following questions:
How has work on ambivalence shifted from the philosophy and anthropology of religion to individual psychology to group psychology,
and then, across some ruptures, to poetics—and how has it been able to slide between them? How is it possible that it is devalued
as primitive, pre-rational thinking on the one hand, and valued as evincing the highest cognitive, imaginative, and aesthetic
faculties on the other? I will approach these questions from primarily two sites: firstly, from psychoanalysis encompassing
both the ontogenetic history individual psychic formation, and the phylogenetic history of cultural-societal formations, and,
secondly, from aesthetic theory. The complex transcriptions mediating between these distinct sites belie a the simple charge
of the “psychologisation of religious experience” in late modernity (Agamben).
Mikhail Bakhtin’s term of “dialogism” is closely connected with the terms of “ambiguity” and “ambivalence”. Describing dialogism, hybridity, and polyphony in his study “Слово в романе” [The word in the novel] he creates a poetics of ambiguity and ambivalence. The current study demonstrates on the examples of four Russian writers of the 20th century how Bakhtin’s theory can be understood this way, forming a parallel with the poetics of contemporary writers such as Daniil Kharms, Yevgeny Zamyatin, and Andrei Platonov as well as writers of the second half of the century such as Andrei Bitov. Whereas in the case of Kharms, the inherent ambiguity of the text dealt with in this article leads to a sort of dialogue among scholars, the cases of Zamyatin and Platonov are closely linked with the problem of dystopia, for which is typical the penetration of dialogism into a monological world. The last case, Andrei Bitov’s novel “Puskinhouse”, is closely linked with postmodernist ambiguity.
There is a clear link between Virgil’s Ecl. 1 and the ending of the Georgics, suggested by the quotation of Ecl. 1. 1 at Georg. 4. 566. Common to the two texts is a dualistic structure, in Ecl. 1 between the different situations of Tityrus and Meliboeus, and in Georg. 4. 559–566 between the different choices of life by Octavian and the poet. But the two texts are also linked by the figure of Octavian, in Ecl. 1 iuvenis deus, but also responsible for the land eviction suffered by Meliboeus, at Georg. 4. 560–562 thundering and shining god, opposite to Virgil’s leisure. It is a symptom of a constantly ambivalent attitude of Virgil towards him, confirmed once again at the end of the Aeneid: here in a new dualism (Aeneas/Turnus, mercy/vengeance) we find a figure (the hero) and a theme (revenge) closely related to Octavian. So these key-points of his poetry offer an opportunity to reflect on the range and limits of Virgil’s consent to the Augustan regime.
Robertson Smith's studies on religion of the Semites.
As for the epigones of the French sociologist, this theory of the ambivalence of the sacred would be justified by the original ambiguity of the term sacred, which is a
Alban Berg has long been seen as the most conservative member of the Second Viennese School, a ‘moderate modernist’, an accessible throwback to Romanticism for audiences afraid of the supposedly more radical innovations of Schoenberg or Webern, and hence for much of the 20th century has suffered from the stigma of a perceived lack of progressivism. Yet recent decades have witnessed a gradual shift in critical opinion on this issue, coinciding with a loosening of the claims of high modernity and arguably a move to a more ‘postmodern’ outlook. This paper explores further the relationship between the historical tendency in Berg’s music and the complex notion of modernity through an analysis of the early String Quartet op. 3, his first large-scale atonal composition, focusing on the idea of synthesis between old and new, conservative and progressive — the nature of the modernity which arises out of his music’s relationship with the past. This is the most problematic category in relation to advancing Berg’s credentials as a modernist but thus possibly the most interesting, and also useful since it can ultimately allow a critique of the whole notion of the modern imperative.
Geographically situated some 550 kilometers southeast of Vienna and 250 kilometers southeast of Budapest, Timişoara assimilated the influences of the two former imperial capitals relatively quickly. Its European openness was facilitated by the practice of plurilingualism and multiconfessionalism. At the beginning of the 20th century, Timişoara’s population spoke five languages, namely Hungarian, German, Serbian, Romanian and Bulgarian. The main religious affiliations were Roman-Catholic, Orthodox, Greek-Catholic, Evangelic-Lutheran, Reformist-Calvinist Churches and Jewish. Interculturality and the intermingling of populations generated a very promising social culture. Analyzed from the behavioral point of view, Timişoara was an example of multi-cultural and intercultural society for two centuries, which made it possible for this center to be integrated into Europe ever since the 19th century and to represent the main link between the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy and the Balkan Peninsula. The multicultural and intercultural dimensions gave consistency to the anti-totalitarian resistance over the course of the 20th century. This was why the intellectuals in the post-Ceauşescu period defined the city’s distinctiveness with the expression “the spirit of Timişoara”.
Jelen tanulmány az alkoholizmus gyógykezelésében alkalmazott számos irányzat közül a kognitív viselkedésterápiát mutatja be, általános érvényű azonban az a megállapítás, hogy a szenvedélybetegek pszichoterápiája komplex folyamat: több síkon, több módszer szerint megy végbe. Minden egyes kliens gyógykezelése egyéni sajátosságokat mutat, így a terápia is egyedi, mindig a kliens aktuális állapotához, motiváltsági fokához és szükségleteihez alkalmazkodik. Az alkoholfüggőség kognitív szempontú kezelésének másik jellegzetessége, hogy hosszú távú, nem időhatáros, és végső célja az absztinencia huzamos fenntartása mellett az optimális életminőség elérése.