High-resolution thermogravimetry was used to study the thermodesorption of octane from ammonium nitrate (AN) prills with different
porosities. The samples were wetted by immersion in octane. Multiple steps were obtained from the measured mass-loss curves,
which reflect the evaporation of the excess liquid, as well as the thermodesorption of octane from the pores and the surface
of the AN prills. The quantity of octane desorbed in these steps was correlated with the volume in the pores and the amount
adsorbed on the surface, and used to estimate the adsorption capacity, porosity and surface area of AN prills. The results
were also compared to observations from scanning electron microscopy.
Modification of the room temperature phase (IV-III) of ammonium nitrate (AN) has been attempted using a variety of potassium
salts namely, KF, KCl, KI, KNO3, K2CO3, K2SO4, KSCN and K2Cr2O7. No phase transition was observed when AN containing 1–2% by mass of these potassium salts is heated from room temperature
(25C) onwards in DTA and DSC scans, but the linear expansion due to phase transition was still observable in TMA measurements.
Complete arrest of the linear expansion occurs only when a higher concentration of the additive is used. Similarly, in thermal
cycling experiments, complete phase modification in the temperature range -80 to 100C occurs only with a higher percentage
of the potassium salt. The extent of modification, however, is found to be dependent both on the concentration, and the type
of the anion. Potassium dichromate when used as an additive modifies the phase as well as the decomposition pattern of AN.
Dried samples of ammonium nitrate (AN) containing 1, 3, 5 mol% KNO3, RbNO3 and CsNO3 were investigated with temperature resolved X-ray diffraction. The samples were cycled with 2 temperature programs from −70° to 100° and −70° to 150°C, resp. DSC measurements were made for comparison.
Authors:Y. Rubtsov, A. Kazakov, V. Nedelko, Al. Shastin, Tatyana Larikova, Tamara Sorokina, and B. Korsounskii
The thermal stability of the ammonium nitrate (AN)/sodium salt of 1,3-dichlor-2,4,6-trioxo-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (DC) composition
has been studied. The factors of influence on the rates of reactions in the composition, namely, a water content, composition
wetting methods, a dispersion of composition components, sample mass values, have been examined. The water presence in the
composition reduces its thermal stability. The mechanism includes the partial dissociation of AN to HNO3 and NH3 and the hydrolysis of DC with the formation of some unstable Cl-containing compounds (chloramines, nitrogen chloride). The
reaction of ammonium cation with active chlorine has been found to give rise to the explosion of the AN/DC composition. Such
a situation is typical for other ammonium salt/DC compositions.
Authors:I. Klimova, T. Kaljuvee, L. Türn, V. Bender, A. Trikkel, and R. Kuusik
Ammoniumnitrate is the main nitrogen fertilizer used in agriculture because of its high nitrogen content (35%), full solubility in water and relatively simple manufacturing technology [ 1 , 2 ]. However, the
Ammonium nitrate (AN) is one of the main nitrogen fertilizers used in fertilization programs. However, AN has some serious
disadvantages — being well soluble in water hardly 50% of the N-species contained are assimilated by plants. The second disadvantage
of AN is associated with its explosive properties. The aim of this paper was to clarify the influence of different lime-containing
substances — mainly Estonian limestone and dolomite — as internal additives on thermal behaviour of AN.
Commercial fertilizer grade AN was under investigation. The amount of additives used was 5, 10 or 20 mass%, or calculated
on the mole ratio of AN/(CaO, MgO)=2:1 in the blends. Experiments were carried out under dynamic heating condition up to 900°C
(10°C min−1) in a stream of dry air or N2 by using Setaram Labsys 2000 equipment coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR).
The results of analyses of the gaseous compounds evolved at thermal treatment of neat AN indicated some differences in the
decomposition of AN in air or in N2. At the thermal treatment of AN’s blends with CaCO3, MgCO3, limestone and dolomite samples the decomposition of AN proceeds through a completely different mechanism — depending on
the origin and the content of additives, partially or completely, through the formation of Mg(NO3)2 and Ca(NO3)2.
Authors:Romana Korošec, Petra Kajič, and P. Bukovec
The main component of an emulsion explosive is a water-in-oil emulsion consisting of a supersaturated ammonium nitrate (AN)
water phase, finely dispersed in an oil phase. Quantitative determination of nearly all the components in a W/O emulsion is
possible using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal TG measurements enable determination
of water content, while cycled DSC measurements allow the amount of ammonium nitrate to be determined. In the case that sodium
nitrate (SN) is also added to AN as an oxidizing agent, it is necessary to quantitatively separate both salts from organic
matter with diethyl ether. On the basis of the TG curve of the precipitated salts, the amount of AN can then be calculated,
and that of SN is obtained from TG measurement of the original sample.
Authors:C. S. Choi, J. Schroeder, Y. T. Lee, J. Frankel, and J. F. Cox
We present Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results on Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN) solutions and Triethanol Ammonium Nitrate (TEAN) solutions with varying concentrations. These results are used to generate phase diagrams of these solutions. The results of the melting points of these liquids are compared with the theoretical calculations of the depression of melting points. The melting temperatures of the HAN solutions at some specified concentration range are predicted rather well using the two electrolyte assumption. The phase diagram of the TEAN solutions explains an instability with respect to phase separation of this liquid.
The reason for the special thermal behaviour of ammonium nitrate (AN) has been examined. Under certain experimental conditions more transition temperatures were obtained than hitherto found (37–42°, 50° and 86°). With Du Pont DSC curves several exothermic peaks or exothermic oscillations were shown after the endothermic peak at 51°, indicating that phase IV had been transformed to metastable phase III, as a consequence of which the III→II transformation at 86° also became possible. On repeated cycling the exothermic peak decreased or disappeared if the III→II transformation had developed to a greater extent. A successful IV→III transformation was induced by inoculation of AN with phase III, an unusual procedure in investigating the phase transformation of AN. The use of the method is obvious with regard to the fact that all transformations are controlled by the rate of nucleation.