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Abstract  

Seven polymorphic modifications of doxazosin mesylate, designed as forms A, D, E, F, G, H, I, and the amorphous state were studied by thermal methods (TG and DSC), temperature resolved X-ray powder diffractometry, hot stage and scanning electron microscopy and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Amorphous form was obtained either by fast evaporation of the solvent or by fast cooling of the melt in the DSC. Polymorphs A and F were found to be stable in the temperature range from room temperature to their melting points at 277.9 and 276.5C, respectively. Form G, which melts at 270.8C, was found to be hygroscopic. Polymorph D undergoes irreversible solid–liquid–solid phase transition at 235.5C to polymorph I which melts at 274.9C. Form H, which melts at 258.0C, was found to be unstable at high temperatures. DSC examinations revealed that form H is irreversibly transformed to polymorph F during heating above the temperature of about 240C. The amorphous state was found to be stable at room temperature but when heating above the glass transition (T g=144.1C) it crystallizes at 221.6C, what leads into a mixture of polymorphic forms. The new polymorphic form designed as E was identified in the mixture. The polymorph E is converted by heating to the more stable form F. The solubilities at 25C for forms A, and F in methanol are 3.5 and 7.7 mg mL−1and in water they are 3.8 and 6.2 mg mL−1, respectively.

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crystalline form are poorly water soluble, the potential to transform them into an amorphous state is regarded with interest because of the advantageous biopharmaceutical properties that might thus be obtained. An amorphous phase may be deliberately formed to

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Abstract  

The heat capacity or the specific heat is for any crystalline, partially amorphous or completely amorphous substance or material a significant thermodynamic property. The glass transition may be regarded as the melting point of amorphous substances and materials, a transition property of an outstanding technical importance. A crucial point is the fact that the presence of a glass transition is an unequivocal proof of an amorphous content of a material. Furthermore, the change of the specific heat at the glass transition temperature enables the quantitative determination of the amorphicity on a relative or absolute level of any substance or material. The absolute determination of the amorphicity affords a calibration with a reference corresponding to the material under investigation. The crystallinity for this reference substance must be known from the preparation and or by any independent analytical method. The literature data for the specific heat and the glass transition of polystyrene were collected and evaluated. Data were found for the specific heat in literature from 10 to 470 K. The data were unified for each of the reported temperature in a mean value and the corresponding standard deviation was determined. An excellent conformity was found in the glassy state of polystyrene with standard deviations lower than 0.7%. The standard deviations above the glass transition were considerably higher. All these literature data were transferred for each of the literature sets separately into linear specific heat functions in the vicinity of the glass transition. One set of our measurements performed with the DSC 204 and with polystyrene SRM 705a as sample material was additionally integrated in the mean of these functions for the glassy state and the liquid amorphous state respectively. The addition of our results gave practically no change of the mean coefficients and only a decrease of the standard deviations. In such a way, the data with the best statistical base for the specific heat of polystyrene are listed in this paper ( ‘Conclusions’). The glass transition as a transition in and out of a non-equilibrium state, the glassy state, is sensitive to all kind of influences such as thermal and mechanical treatments as well as to the selected experimental conditions. Therefore, certain standardized conditions procedures must be fulfilled to get reproducible data. The literature data for the glass transition temperature were also used to get a mean value. However, two values were omitted for the formation of the mean, because the authors reported values, which were too low on the base of impurities present. The mean value of the glass transition for polystyrene is according to the literature 3692 K. A mean value of 3702 K was extrapolated for an infinite molecular mass. The DSC and TMDSC measurements for the three thermodynamic properties reported in this paper, namely the specific heat, the glass transition temperature and the corresponding change of the specific heat gave results without significant differences compared with the literature values. Atactic polystyrene is a rather ideal polymer together with sapphire as calibration substance to elucidate and validate the DSC and TMDSC procedures for the determination of the specific heat and the glass transition.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Giovanna Bruni, C. Milanese, G. Bellazzi, V. Berbenni, P. Cofrancesco, A. Marini, and M. Villa

Abstract  

The processes of production of drugs and dosage forms in the solid state often cause unwanted transformation of portions of the substances into amorphous state, with significant changes of properties such as stability and bio-availability. When this amorphous fraction is of the order of a few percent, it usually goes unnoticed, but it should be accurately determined within a quality control system. In this work, we consider a model drug, perphenazine, where partial amorphisation may be induced by standard mechanical treatments. We show that Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) leads to consistent estimations of the amorphous fractions induced by the treatment. Furthermore, DSC also yields the expected amounts of amorphous perphenazine when analysing known mixtures of perfectly crystalline samples (untreated) and partially amorphous samples (treated). We show that even amorphous fractions of the order of 1% are accurately estimated by our method.

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The amorphous state of solids is characterized by a higher chemical and physical reactivity and a hygroscopic behaviour. Furthermore processing of amorphous powders is often difficult, because of the instability. Fast crystallizations, precipitations and milling favour the formation of the amorphous state. Galenical processes like granulation, drying, lyophilization, mixing, may also induce amorphous regions in the drug products.

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Abstract  

Thermal analysis methods are well-established techniques in research laboratories of pharmaceutical industry. The robustness and sensitivity of instrumentation, the introduction of automation and of reliable software according to the industrial needs widened considerably the areas of applications in the last decade. Calibration of instruments and validation of results follow the state of the art of cGMP as for other analytical techniques. Thermal analysis techniques are especially useful for the study of the behavior of the poly-phasic systems drug substances and excipients and find a unique place for new delivery systems. Since change of temperature and moisture occur by processing and storage, changes of the solid state may have a considerable effect on activity, toxicity and stability of compounds. Current requirements of the International Conference of Harmonisation for the characterization and the quantitation of polymorphism in new entities re-enforce the position of thermal analysis techniques. This challenging task needs the use of complementary methods. Combined techniques and microcalorimetry demonstrate their advantages. This article reviews the current use of thermal analysis and combined techniques in research and development and in production. The advantage of commercially coupled techniques to thermogravimetry is emphasized with some examples.

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that the amorphous state is more accurately described as multiple states of aggregation characteristic of this distribution of minima on the hypersurface. This means that the dipole response to the external electric field cannot be described in terms of

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to grain size of 0.1–0.3 mm. The chemical composition of glasses was controlled by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using ARL Advant ‘XP spectrometer. Chemical composition of the examined glasses was presented in Table 1 . Amorphous state of the

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Abstract  

Modern thermal analysis, microcalorimetry and new emerging combined techniques which deliver calorimetric, microscopic and spectroscopic data offer a powerful analytical battery for the study of pharmaceuticals. These techniques are very useful in all steps of development of new drug products as well as methods for quality control in production. The characterization of raw materials enables to understand the relationships between polymorphs, solvates and hydrates and to choose the proper development of new drug products with very small amount of material in a very short time. Information on stability, purity is valuable for new entities as well as for marketed drug substances from different suppliers. Excipients which vary from single organic or inorganic entity to complexes matrixes or polymers need to be characterized and properly controlled. The thermodynamic phase-diagrams are the basis of the studies of drug-excipients interactions. They are very useful for the development of new delivery systems. A great number of new formulations need proper knowledge of the behaviour of the glass transition temperature of the components. Semi-liquid systems, interactions in aqueous media are also successfully studied by these techniques.

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Grinding of drugs with pharmaceutical excipients at cryogenic temperatures

Part II. Cryogenic grinding of indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone mixtures

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: T. Shakhtshneider, F. Danède, F. Capet, J. Willart, M. Descamps, L. Paccou, E. Surov, E. Boldyreva, and V. Boldyrev

Abstract  

The effect of cryogenic grinding on the indomethacin (IMC) and its mixtures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was studied by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Cryoground mixtures were shown to form glass solutions. PVP inhibits the crystallization of IMC from the amorphous state: the crystallization temperature of IMC in the mixtures with PVP increases, and the amorphous state is preserved longer on storage. The mixtures were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Dissolution of the IMC in the cryoground mixtures is higher as compared to the pure form, also after a prolonged storage.

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