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JPC - Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC
Authors: Radosław Łukasz Gwarda, Wojciech Szwerc, Monika Aletańska-Kozak, Anna Klimek-Turek, Andrzej Torbicz, Adam Chomicki, Ryszard Kocjan, Dariusz Matosiuk, and Tadeusz Henryk Dzido

In our previous papers, we have mentioned some specific disruption of peptide zones shape and chromatogram distortion, when using mobile phase containing ion-pairing acids. This problem is investigated here. It concerns not only some specific separation conditions but also various separation systems with silica-based adsorbents and water—alcohol mobile phases. We show that the problem results from significant amount of metallic impurities present in the adsorbents investigated. Our results prove that these impurities strongly affect the activity of free silanol groups and thus the retention of basic or amphoteric compounds and the quality of the results obtained. The standard method of washing adsorbent layer with methanol is not effective against the impurities. Washing chromatographic plates with a solution containing an acid significantly reduces the amount of metallic impurities in the adsorbent, resulting in the reduction/elimination of these adverse effects. However, it also leads to the increase of heterogeneity of acidic groups activity and deterioration of separation system efficiency. Therefore, removing metal ions from the adsorbent may not always be advantageous. Avoiding of use of strong ion-pairing acids is also problematic and not always possible. Thus, the production of high-purity silica of homogenous activity seems to be the best and the most reliable solution of the problem described.

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Abstract  

The thermally induced structural transformation of a hydrogen-bonded crystal formed from an amphoteric molecule of 6-[2-methoxy-4-(pyridylazo)phenoxy]hexanoic acid MeO was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction measurement (XRD). Crystal form of the hydrogen-bonded crystal was measured by single crystal four circle diffractometer (Mo-Kα radiation). As a result, the crystal of MeO was stabilized by many C–H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds, and the C–H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds were broken by thermal energy reversibly. After transformation the supramolecular architecture was composed of supramolecular polymer including free-rotation pentamethylene main chains.

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Summary Thermally induced structural transformation of fibrous hydrogen-bonded molecular assemblage formed from an amphoteric pyridinecarboxylic acid of 6-[2-propyl- 4-(4-pyridylazo)phenoxy]hexanoic acid (C5PR) was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and thermogravimetry (TG). The organized fibrous morphology formed in an aqueous solution was stable at temperatures below 150°C. The ordered crystalline solid phase (K1) of the original fibrous material altered to a disordered crystalline solid phase (K2) at 150°C and subsequently to an isotropic phase (I) at 172°C. In the isotropic state, the C5PR molecule was slowly decomposed by decarboxylation. Once the molecular assemblage was subjected to the mesophase by heating, another ordered crystalline solid phase (K3) appeared reversibly at 17°C. The heat budget analyses by DSC indicated that a conformational entropy change such as the side-chain propyl group and the main-chain pentamethylene unit in the hydrogen-bonded molecular assemblage took place between the two ordered crystalline solid phases K1 and K3.

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