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Authors: T. Tauber, Brigitta Berta, Anna Székely, I. Gyarmati, Katalin Kékesi, K. Márialigeti and Erika Tóth

The aim of the present work was to compare the microbial communities of a mesophilic and a thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digester. For studying the communities cultivation independent chemotaxonomical methods (RQ and PLFA analyses) and T-RFLP were applied. Microbial communities of the mesophilic and thermophilic pilot digesters showed considerable differences, both concerning the species present, and their abundance. A Methanosarcina sp. dominated the thermophilic, while a Methanosaeta sp. the mesophilic digester among Archaea. Species diversity of Bacteria was reduced in the thermophilic digester. Based on the quinone patterns in both digesters the dominance of sulphate reducing respiratory bacteria could be detected. The PLFA profiles of the digester communities were similar though in minor components characteristic differences were shown. Level of branched chain fatty acids is slightly lower in the thermophilic digester that reports less Gram positive bacteria. The relative ratio of fatty acids characteristic to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia shows differences between the two digesters: their importance generally decreased under thermophilic conditions. The sulphate reducer marker (15:1 and 17:1) fatty acids are present in low quantity in both digesters.

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resistance in the anaerobes as compared to previous decades. Anaerobe 2015; 31: 4–10. 9 Nagy E, Boyanova L, Justesen US. How to isolate, identify and

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, Hopson H: Critical assessment of blood culture techniques: analysis of recovery of obligate and facultative anaerobes, strict anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles. J Clin Microbiol 30, 1462–1468 (1992

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exceed the number of facultative anaerobes by a magnitude of 10–1,000 [ 1, 2 ]. These strict anaerobes have a protective role against obligate pathogenic bacteria by consuming nutrients in the anatomical niche and by secreting short-chain fatty acids

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Holdeman, L. V., Moore, W. E. C. and Cato, E. P. (eds) (1977): Anaerobe Laboratory Manual. 4th edition. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia. Anaerobe Laboratory Manual

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required for the collection, transport and culture of anaerobes, the availability of reliable data on anaerobic bacteria associated with CRS, especially in adult patients is limited; however, based on various reports, anaerobic pathogens were recovered in 8

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Authors: Elisabeth Nagy, Edit Urbán, J. Sóki, J. Sóki, Gabriella Terhes and Katalin Nagy

Rouke, A., Verschraegen, G.: Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis for the identification of cultured organisms of clinically important Clostridium species. Anaerobe 2 , 249-256 (1996). Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene

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This study was to examine how encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 combined with pasteurized longan juice colonized a digestive system by using a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. The results showed that encapsulated L. casei 01 and longan juice stimulated an increase of colon lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, lactic acid and various short-chain fatty acids for which acetate was substantially present in both colons followed by propionate and butyrate. On the contrary, the treatments triggered off the reduction of faecal coliforms, clostridia, and total anaerobes. To sum up, the denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis supported that treatment conditions stimulated diversities of bacteria communities occurring in both colons.

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Authors: Z. M. H. Kheiralla, S. S. Maklad, Sanaa Mohamed Ashour and E. El-Sayed Moustafa

Abstract

The study of the bacteriological profile, the association of complement C3, interleukin-1beta, and zinc therapy of diabetic foot ulcers (type two) was investigated. Twenty diabetics without foot ulcers (group I), 50 diabetics with foot ulcers (group II), and 10 matched normal controls (group III) were enrolled in this study. Diabetic foot ulcers were mostly of grade 2. The most frequent organisms were Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, respectively. Vancomycin, Imipenem, and Meropenem were the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes, while Imipenem, Meropenem and Chloramphenicol for Gram-positive anaerobes. Group II had abnormal levels of C3 (72%). A significant higher concentration of C3 was found in group II. Group II had abnormal levels of IL-1β (60%). A significant higher concentration of IL-1β was found in group II. Zinc therapy (25 mg/day/oral) induced a highly significant decrease in the frequency of Gram-positive anaerobes and levels of IL-1β. Significantly increases all mineral concentrations in serum level except Mn+2. The study highlights the prevalence of antibiotic multidrug resistant bacteria causing foot infections in diabetics which require combined antimicrobial therapy. Altered levels of serum complement C3 and IL-1β might be responsible for depressed immune response which might be causes for delayed wound healing and repeated infections. Zinc supplementation may help in healing the wounds by enhancing the immune response.

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Footrot is widely considered the most severe and most common foot pathology in small ruminants. This study tested the ability of a molecular typing system based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay of the 16S rRNA gene to discriminate between the strict anaerobe genera most commonly isolated from footrot ( Bacteroides, Dichelobacter, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas and Prevotella ) in goats in Extremadura (Spain), with a view to facilitating identification for diagnostic purposes and thus providing a useful tool for future epidemiological studies. Although the electrophoretic patterns obtained with the enzyme Tru 1I were more readily interpreted, and may thus be the best initial option, results may be confirmed by a second enzyme ( Rsa I). The PCR-RFLP assay of the 16S rRNA gene may therefore prove a useful addition to conventional biochemical identification techniques, providing taxonomic information at genus level.

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