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This work deals with the leaf blade anatomical structures of the broad-leaved fescue taxa, natural populations of temperate forage grasses, collected from various habitats in Central Europe. The following anatomical features were examined and quantitatively characterised: the ribs of leaves, type of the mesophyll, number of the sclerenchyma ribs, quantity of sclerenchyma tissue, presence of the colourless cells, number of bulliform cells, stomatal complexes and presence of papilla number. It was concluded that the anatomical structures and the main leaf blade characteristics of broad-leaved fescues show several differences between the taxa of Schenodorus and Drymanthele subgenus. The populations of the Schenodorus subgenus present heterogeneous mesophyll, with radial parenchyma, and colourless cells. Strong correlations exist between the bulliform cells and the quantity of sclerenchyma and papillae. The populations of Drymanthele subgenus also present heterogeneous mesophyll, but this is not evident for every taxa and populations. The radial parenchyma and the colourless cells are not specific. There is a positive correlation between the bulliform cells and the quantity of sclerenchyma. The comparative leaf anatomical analysis, could contribute to the better understanding of taxonomic and anatomical diversity in this group.

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Tropospheric ozone causes visible injuries in selected plants. Some plant species have been recognized as resistant and sensitive to ozone. Differences in the response to ozone of two kinds of plants are interesting because of practical implications. Resistant cultivars (without visible symptoms) will be more valuable for agriculture, forestry and horticulture. It is, however, necessary to find out the reason of the occurrence of the visible symptoms. The presented studies focused on selected morphological and anatomical differences between well-known ozone-sensitive (Bel W3) and -resistant (Bel B) cultivars of tobacco plants. Daily growth of the sensitive cultivar was higher than that of the resistant one. This tendency was also valid for the leaf growth which might have been the response of the sensitive cultivar to decreased photosynthetic leaf area (necrosis) caused by ozone. Morphological investigations revealed thinner upper epidermal cells in the sensitive cultivar. Moreover, a decrease of spongy mesophyll cell layers was observed. The obtained results suggest that it is the anatomical structure that may be partly responsible for ozone resistance — wider epidermal cells, more spongy mesophyll cell layers.

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vitro and in vivo anatomical structure of leaves of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska' and Sorbus rotundifolia L. 'Bükk szépe'. Int. J. Hortic. Sci. , 5 (1-2), 92-95. The in vitro and in vivo anatomical structure of

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Petro Hasiuk, Anna Vorobets, Nataliya Hasiuk, Svitlana Rosolovska, Irina Bodnarchuk and Volodymyr Radchuk

requires a high level of knowledge about the anatomical structure of the teeth crowns. Molars are the most complex structure of all dental systems and have a high degree of differentiation surfaces. According to the theory of Dahlberg, the first molars are

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Abstract  

A simple device to observe the role of individual root zones in the uptake and transport of nutrients is described. The results confirmed the specific significance of the different anatomical structure of primary seminal maize root in ensuring the uptake and transport of phosphates. In32p-uptake, the highest portion />40%/was taken up by zone in distance of 0–5 mm from root cap. On the other hand, the lowest transport was shown in the zone 25–30 mm from root tip. The portion of this zone was 40% from the total received supply.

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In the present study, morphological and anatomical structures of cypsela – 12 Cirsium Miller (Carduoideae, Asteraceae) taxa belonging to two sections (sect. Cirsium and sect. Cephalonoplos) were investigated in detail with using stereomicroscope and light microscope. The taxa were evaluated comparatively in the aspect of carpological variations and their anatomies were presented in here for the first time. Morphological features including size, shape and colour of cypselae were examined. From anatomical observations, anatomical structures of pericarp, as well as the structure of testa were described. Cypselae colours differ from light brown to stramineous, sometimes with blackish striations. Their shapes change from oblong to oblanceolate, rarely obovate. The largest cypselae are present in C. echinus (1.59±0.03 mm × 4.68±0.07 mm) and the smallest ones are found in C. subinerme (1.20±0.02 mm × 2.97±0.05 mm). The pericarp is characterised by almost parenchymatous cells, while the testa is composed of lignified sclerenchymatous cell lines and crushed cells group. Secretory structure in testa bundle was evaluated. Results obtained from this study were compared with the present data in literature. Overall, morphological and anatomical characteristics of cypselae provide useful taxonomic markers in their classifications of the studied taxa of Cirsium but not distinctive for their sectional levels.

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Smilax goyazana is a dioicous species occurring very commonly in the Brazilian cerrado vegetation. Leaves from male and female plants were compared in size and anatomical structure. No differences in size were found. Female plants presented higher stomatal density than the male ones. All other qualitative and quantitative parameters did not show differences related to sex. The leaf blade is amphistomatous. Only spongy mesophyll is present. In the midrib, there are three vascular bundles that fuse into one bundle in about the second third of the foliar length. Idioblasts containing calcium oxalate occur randomly in the petiole and leaf blade. No starch or tannins were evidenced. Nervation is acrodromous. S. goyazana presents structures similar to other Smilacaceae, however, in the whole, it presents distinctive characteristics from other species of the genus.

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. Acta Bot. Hung. 38 47 138 Hare, C. L. (1942): On the taxonomic value of the anatomical structure of the

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Davina Wolf, Matthias Lüpke, Patrick Wefstaedt, Thilo Klopmann, Ingo Nolte and Hermann Seifert

The aim of this study was to develop an examination protocol for magnetic resonance imaging, in order to display diagnostically important information of the canine middle and inner ear. To ensure that this protocol could also be used as a basis for determining pathological changes, the anatomical structures of the ear were presented in detail. To minimise stress through anaesthesia in live animals, preliminary examinations were carried out on four dog cadavers. During these initial examinations, three-dimensional (3D) sequences proved to be superior to two-dimensional ones. Therefore, only 3D sequences were applied for the main examinations performed on six clinically healthy Beagles. The anonymised MR images were rated by three experienced reviewers using a five-point scale. The most valuable sequence was a T2-weighted CISS sequence (TR = 16.7 ms, TE = 8.08 ms). This sequence proved to be most suitable for illustrating the inner ear structures and enabled good tissue contrasts. The sequence ranked second best was also a T2-weighted DESS sequence (TR = 19 ms, TE = 6 ms), allowing the imaging of the tympanic cavity and enabling 3D reconstruction due to its isotropic voxels. Due to low contrast and strong noise, the other sequences (TSE, FISP, MP RAGE) were not suitable for anatomical illustration of the middle and inner ear.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ahmad Al Aiyan, Kenneth Richardson, George Manchi, Johanna Plendl and Leo Brunnberg

The aim of this study was to get precise normal values of the femoral neck angle (FNA) in support of developing an optimally functioning total hip prosthesis for medium and large dog breeds. Accordingly, two- and three-dimensional computed tomographic images of the anatomical structures of the proximal femora of 58, hip-dysplasia-free, mature dogs of medium and large breeds were studied. Based on the length of their femora the dogs were allocated to Group I (from 145 to 195 mm) and Group II (from 196 to 240 mm). The FNA was measured on each femur using multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT). The two- and three-dimensional image data were processed as multi-planar and threedimensional reconstructions using Advantage Workstation software. The CT measurements revealed that Group I had an average femoral neck angle of 147.59° (min. 144.05°, max. 153.35°), while in Group II the average FNA was 147.46° (min. 141°, max. 154.35°). There was no significant correlation between the length of the femur and the FNA in either group. The optimal FNA for a total hip prosthesis is 147.5° for medium and large dog breeds.

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