is considered an important medicinal plant by the local population of Balochistan, Pakistan. The species is facing a grave threat by a parasitic and epiphytic angiosperm, dwarf mistletoe,
(DC.) M. Bieb. (Viscaceae). The methanolic extract of
was studied for its chemical composition and biologically active compounds for the first time. The extract was assayed for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extract were determined against ten bacterial and ten fungal strains by agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assay. The extract was highly effective against three bacteria
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis
and a fungus
. The phytotoxic effects showed that it was extremely toxic for
. It showed high cytoxicity for brine shrimps at all concentrations and was found to be significantly cytotoxic against
when checked by flow cytometer. However, the extract was not effective against the pests tested.
Authors:Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Muhstaq Ahmed, Muhammad Wasim Khan, and Rahmat Ali Khan
Traditional medicines are composed of herbal formulations and their active ingredients and constituents which play a crucial role in the treatment of various human ailments. Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotus parviflora Desf.) are used traditionally as antiperspirant, tonic, diuretic, laxative and narcotic agents. The current study was designed to investigate the Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotus parviflora Desf.) methanol extracts for their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Fine powder of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora was extracted with 70% methanol to get crude methanol extract. Extract was characterized for antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antioxidant activity of various concentrations (3 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ ml, 0.75 mg/ml, and 0.38 mg/ml) of both plant extracts was analyzed using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Salmonella typhemorium, Klebsiella pneumoniae (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacterial strains were used for assessment of antibacterial activities. Antifungal activities of 7.5 mg/ml, 5.0 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml (A. eremophilus and M. parviflora) were conducted using Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicons. At high concentration (3 mg/ml), all the tested fractions of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts showed potent antioxidant activities, ranging between 83.8 and 63.33%. Antibacterial activities revealed that A. eremophilus showed a maximum zone of inhibition (8.1 ± 0.1) on Salmonella typhenorium followed by Enterococcus faecalis (7.2 ± 0.1), Klebsellesa pneumonia (6.1 ± 0.6), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.1 ± 0.4), and at highest concentration (7.5 mg/ml), however, maximum zone of inhibition of Melilotus parviflora was at 7.5 mg/ml followed by 5.0 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml against Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhemorium and Enterococcus faecalis. Antifungal assessment of both plant extracts showed that the higher concentration (7.5 mg/ml) has significant inhibitory effect as compared to control. The results can lead to the conclusion that A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts are indeed sources of potential therapeutic compounds against antibacterial, antifungal and free radical associated disorders.