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The Juniperus excelsa is considered an important medicinal plant by the local population of Balochistan, Pakistan. The species is facing a grave threat by a parasitic and epiphytic angiosperm, dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb. (Viscaceae). The methanolic extract of A. oxycedri was studied for its chemical composition and biologically active compounds for the first time. The extract was assayed for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extract were determined against ten bacterial and ten fungal strains by agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assay. The extract was highly effective against three bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and a fungus Candida albicans . The phytotoxic effects showed that it was extremely toxic for Lemna acquinoctialis . It showed high cytoxicity for brine shrimps at all concentrations and was found to be significantly cytotoxic against Candida albicans when checked by flow cytometer. However, the extract was not effective against the pests tested.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Muhstaq Ahmed, Muhammad Wasim Khan, and Rahmat Ali Khan

Traditional medicines are composed of herbal formulations and their active ingredients and constituents which play a crucial role in the treatment of various human ailments. Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotus parviflora Desf.) are used traditionally as antiperspirant, tonic, diuretic, laxative and narcotic agents. The current study was designed to investigate the Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotus parviflora Desf.) methanol extracts for their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Fine powder of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora was extracted with 70% methanol to get crude methanol extract. Extract was characterized for antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antioxidant activity of various concentrations (3 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ ml, 0.75 mg/ml, and 0.38 mg/ml) of both plant extracts was analyzed using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Salmonella typhemorium, Klebsiella pneumoniae (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacterial strains were used for assessment of antibacterial activities. Antifungal activities of 7.5 mg/ml, 5.0 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml (A. eremophilus and M. parviflora) were conducted using Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicons. At high concentration (3 mg/ml), all the tested fractions of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts showed potent antioxidant activities, ranging between 83.8 and 63.33%. Antibacterial activities revealed that A. eremophilus showed a maximum zone of inhibition (8.1 ± 0.1) on Salmonella typhenorium followed by Enterococcus faecalis (7.2 ± 0.1), Klebsellesa pneumonia (6.1 ± 0.6), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.1 ± 0.4), and at highest concentration (7.5 mg/ml), however, maximum zone of inhibition of Melilotus parviflora was at 7.5 mg/ml followed by 5.0 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml against Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhemorium and Enterococcus faecalis. Antifungal assessment of both plant extracts showed that the higher concentration (7.5 mg/ml) has significant inhibitory effect as compared to control. The results can lead to the conclusion that A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts are indeed sources of potential therapeutic compounds against antibacterial, antifungal and free radical associated disorders.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K.N. Hussein, L. Friedrich, R. Pinter, Cs. Németh, G. Kiskó, and I. Dalmadi

apaji , M. & K ole , C.R. ( 1997 ): Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils . Microbios , 89 , 39 – 46 . P eana , A.T. , D ’Aquila

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: W. D. Ratnasooriya, S. A. Deraniyagala, S. D. N. K. Bathige, C. L. Goonasekara, and J. R. A. C. Jayakody

145 153 Sasidharan, V. K. (1997) Search for antibacterial and antifungal activity of some plants of Kerala. Acta Pharm. 47, 47-51. Search for

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654 Karaman, S., Digrak, M., Ravid, U. & Ilcim, A. (2001): Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Thymus revolutus Celak from Turkey. J. Ethnopharm

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. Ungureanu , C. & Ferdes , M. ( 2010 ): Antibacterial and antifungal activity of red rice obtained from Monascus purpureus . IBIC2010: 2 nd International Conference on Industrial Biotechnology. Chem. Eng. Trans. , 20 , 223 – 228

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Mouwakeh, P. Radácsi, ZS. Pluhár, É. Németh Zámboriné, G. Muránszky, CS. Mohácsi-Farkas, and G. Kiskó

. , Ilidrissi , A , Fkih-Tetouani , S. , Faid , M. & Benjouad , A. ( 2002 ): Antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Mentha suaveolens . Phytother. Res. , 16 , 727 – 731

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References 1. Aburjai , M. , Hudaib , M. ( 2006 ) Antiplatelet, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Achillea falcata extracts and evaluation of volatile

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extracts for their antibacterial and antifungal activity and brine shrimp lethality . – Molecules 15 : 6008 – 6018 . https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15096008 Soare , J. R. , Dinis

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