, 23 ]. The aim of the present paper was to provide additional experimental results on the topic of potential relationships between the biofilm-forming capacity and the antibioticresistance phenotype in Escherichia coli using in vitro methods (in
Beeton, M. L., Chalker, V. J., Maxwell, N. C. és mtsai: Concurrent titration and determination of antibioticresistance in Ureaplasma species with identification of novel point mutations in genes associated with resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother
In this study, the presence of genes responsible for the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci isolated from various foodstuffs of animal origin was investigated. The percentage prevalence of enterococci was 54.1% (203/375) and the average count was found to be 3.81 log cfu/ml-g. Species-specific primers revealed Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species carrying one or more virulence-associated traits of efa, gelE, ace, esp and agg genetic markers. Only one E. faecium isolate (from milk) was positive for the esp gene. Regarding antibiotic resistance, the highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline (21.7%), followed by quinupristin/dalfopristin (13.3%), ciprofloxacin (2.0%), penicillin (2.0%), linezolid (1.0%), ampicillin (1.0%), streptomycin (1.0%), and gentamicin (0.5%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance than other enterococci. The percentage of multidrug resistance among the isolates was 3.4%. Twenty-nine E. faecalis isolates (26.6%) carrying one of the virulence-associated traits were at the same time resistant to at least one antibiotic. Our results show that foods of animal origin, including ready-to-eat products, may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most important causes of urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlation of antibiotic resistance with virulence characteristics and genetic diversity in K. pneumoniae isolated from UTIs in Iran. Phenotypic tests and antibiotic susceptibility were carried out on the isolates. Detection of the virulence and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Pulsed-ﬁeld gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for exploring the genomic relatedness. Hemolysin, biofilm, and hypermucoviscosity formation were observed in 87.1%, 86.4%, and 12.1% of isolates, respectively. The antibiotic resistance rate of K. pneumoniae isolates ranged from 12.1% for meropenem to 100% for amoxicillin. The prevalence of virulence genes ranged from 1.4% for cnf-1 to 100% for mrkD, fimH, kpn, and entB genes. In this study, 91.7%, 33.3%, and 4.2% of phenotypically ESBL-producers were positive for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes, respectively. An association was observed between the presence of traT, fyuA, or cnf-1 genes with antibiotic resistance. Two clone types were obtained by PFGE that indicate different K. pneumoniae clones in community- and hospital-acquired UTIs. The findings of this study are valuable in development of treatment strategies against UTIs in Iran.
Besides the well-known O157:H7 clone causing enterohaemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Europe, Japan and North America, the number of Escherichia coli isolates with non-motile (NM) phenotype has considerably increased. We supposed that spontaneous antibiotic resistance mutation could cause this phenotypic change. To model our hypothesis we isolated rifampicin- (Rif) and ampicillin- (Amp) resistant mutants from E. coli O157:H7 prototype strains 7785 and EDL933. Among Rif r mutants we could isolate strains with no or reduced motility, while the Ampr mutants became hypermotile. The biochemical profile of the mutants had not changed but phage sensitivity and generation time of the mutants were altered. Among the representative strains we did not find polymorphism with Southern blot analysis and no polymorphism was found in the fliC gene of the mutants. The described characteristics have proven to be stable. In a mice virulence assay by intravenous infections the virulence of the derivatives was also found to be changed. In summary, we found that the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in E. coli O157:H7 was coexpressed with several other phenotypic changes including motility and virulence. It can be assumed that expression of the involved phenotypes may be under the influence of a common regulatory cascade. Further work is needed to identify the components and mechanism of this regulatory system.
Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.
analysis was performed by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria and members of Enterobacteriaceae and by investigation of presence of S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes . The antibioticresistance patterns and biofilm forming capacities of
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found.
multidisciplinary approach to clinical and preclinical evaluation and research is considered essential to control antibioticresistance ( Hosoglu et al., 2005 ). Antibioticresistance is found not only in disease-causing bacteria but also in environmental