In this review synonymous definitions of reactive arthritis are discussed first. Major clinical symptoms, their infectious etiology and epidemiology define post-dysenteric and post-venereal forms of reactive arthritis. Classical (smear, culture, biochemistry, antigen detection) and molecular (DNA and RNA detections) techniques are used in the routine microbial diagnosis that is retrospective in the majority of cases. In the pathomechanism of this disorder, HLA-B27 antigen positivity of patients is a frequent risk factor. Molecular mimicry between microbial and self-antigens, abnormal antigen presentation leading to incomplete CD8+ T lymphocyte activation might contribute to the persistence of microbial antigens that elicit clinical symptoms. Treatment is rarely successful with antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Authors:Daniel Cadar, Attila Cságola, Marina Spinu, Ádám Dán, Krisztina Ursu, Márta Lőrincz and Tamás Tuboly
Porcine circoviruses (PCV) are widespread in domestic pigs worldwide and there is growing information about the presence of PCV in other suid species. Based on serological studies with sera of wild boars, it was established that PCV1 was present in these animals and antibodies specific to PCV2 were also detected in wild boars living in captivity or in sylvatic areas, both with or without clinical signs of PMWS. Studies including PCV2 genome or antigen detection confirmed the previous findings. This is the first report about the presence of PCV in Transylvanian wild boar populations. Four hundred and sixty-nine samples were collected and grouped according to geographic origin, tested for the presence of PCV DNA using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, and 13.52% of the animals proved to be positive for one or in three cases both of the PCV genotypes. PCV2 was detected in all of the PCV-positive samples.
The aim of this review is to describe the biology of human adenovirus (HAdV), the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and to present a practical update on its diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. There are two well-defined adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis clinical syndromes: epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF), which are caused by different HAdV serotypes. The exact incidence of adenoviral conjunctivitis is still poorly known. However, cases are more frequent during warmer months. The virus is endemic in the general population, and frequently causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients, especially the pediatric patients. Contagion is possible through direct contact or fomites, and the virus is extremely resistant to different physical and chemical agents. The clinical signs or symptoms of conjunctival infection are similar to any other conjunctivitis, with a higher incidence of pseudomembranes. In the cornea, adenoviral infection may lead to keratitis nummularis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, but its etiology can be confirmed using cell cultures, antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction or immunochromatography. Multiple treatments have been tried for this disease, but none of them seem to be completely effective. Prevention is the most reliable and recommended strategy to control this contagious infection.
Authors:Erika Orosz, Katalin Perkátai, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Ágnes Farkas and István Kucsera
Haque, R. I. K., Ali, S., Akther, Petri, W. A.: Comparison of PCR, isoenzyme analysis and antigendetection of diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection. J Clin Microbiol 36 , 449–452 (1998).
Petri W. A
Authors:Balázs Tahin, Justin Cooke, Magdolna Grasselly, János László Iványi, Barna Szima, Mátyás Bobest, Erika Ligeti, Ferenc Brittig, Ferenc Garzuly and Csaba Tóth
Jargue, I., Andreu, R., Salavert, M. és mtsai:
Value of Aspergillus galactomannan antigendetection in the diagnosis and follow-up of invasive aspergillosis in hematological patients. Rev. Iberoam. Micol., 2003,
Authors:Andreas Hahn, Rebecca Hinz, Thomas Meyer, Ulrike Loderstädt, Ottmar Herchenröder, Christian G. Meyer, Norbert Georg Schwarz and Hagen Frickmann
]. The use of 4th-generation RDT systems can narrow the diagnostic gap but cannot completely resolve this problem. Moreover, the sensitivity of p24 antigendetection by HIV RDT systems was shown to be poor in seroconversion panels as exemplarily
Authors:Matthias Karrasch, Sven Eisenach, Ulrich Vogel, Jan Zinke, Otto W. Witte, Albrecht Günther, Bernd Romeike and Jürgen Rödel
. meningitidis cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection has several limitations. The sensitivity of CSF Gram-staining ranges from 60% to 90% and accuracy depends on the skills and experience of the operator [ 6 ]. Direct antigendetection assays based on latex
Rallu, F., Barriga, P., Scrivo, C. et al.: Sensitivities of antigendetection and PCR assays greatly increased compared to that of the standard culture method for screening for group B Streptococcus carriage in pregnant woman. J Clin Microbiol