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Templomépítészet a szocializmusban

Szerkezet, forma és szakrális tartalom viszonya az 1970–1980-as évek magyarországi római katolikus templomépítészetében

Church architecture and socialism

Relations of the structure, form and content in the hungarian church architecture in the 1970–1980s
Építés - Építészettudomány
Erzsébet Urbán


Intensive church construction activity of the Hungarian Christian churches stopped fundamentally, because of the secularization that came with the political takeover after WWII. The style and forming techniques of the churches built in the interwar period could be perceptible for almost two decades, but from the early 1960s new form experimentations have begun, and style pluralism has widened from the 1970s, thanks to the impulse of Vatican Council II. New, in the field of church architecture formerly not used building structures and materials appeared beside the traditional ones (which often gave an industrial, almost profane appearance to the sacral space). Churches in the period were built under the simplest circumstances — with the easiest obtainable building materials and with the help from the local communities -, thus there is not really an opportunity to analyse complex structural systems and joints, so this study aims to group the buildings according to the visual-aesthetic appearance and accent of the structures. The research took into account a much larger building stock than mentioned in previous literature. Although most of these churches do not own outstanding architectural value, still their numerical value and their construction itself are important from a sociological, church historical perspective. The churches enumerated in the article are intentionally not cited in chronological order. After the analysis of these buildings, it is clear that the traditional longitudinal arrangement with the conventional brick masonry and timber roof structure is dominant in the first third of the period. Later mainly monolith reinforced concrete frame structures with infill brickwork, or freely formed structural systems with reinforced concrete slabs were designed. Traditional building materials and structures come to the fore with the spread of the postmodern and the rediscovery of the elements of historicism in the last stage of the examined period.

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