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The paper considers Antonio Muńoz Molina's novel, {Ventanas de Manhattan}, and regards it as a reflection on culture. First, the structure of the novel is inspired by the topic of the "window" and the style of writing, basically description, conforms to an "art of looking" based on the narrator's habit of looking at art, which is considered to be one of the finest expressions of culture. In other respects, this narrative poetics fails when the narrator attempts to provide a description of the current reality of New York. This failure, a crisis of representation, is provoked, at the time, by a crisis of culture: the contemporary world does not harmonize culture as "art" with culture as a "way of life." New York appears in the book as a modern Babylon, where the narrator-protagonist seeks his identity and judges the way the world goes.

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Abstract  

TheDissertation Abstracts database was searched online to study patterns in the growth of scholarship from 1880–1984. The total number of degrees granted per year as well as the number of degrees granted per year in the hard sciences, social sciences, and library science seems to be leveling off; the number in fine arts and literature has begun to decline; and the number in information science, computer science, and the health sciences continues to grow. SearchingDissertation Abstracts online offers an efficient and relatively inexpensive way to obtain quantitative data for trend analysis.

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European Journal of Mental Health
Authors: Béla Buda, Teodóra Tomcsányi, János Harmatta, Roger Csáky-Pallavicini, and Gábor Paneth

This study provides an overview of how psychotherapy’s Hungarian representatives tried to safeguard and transmit psychotherapeutic training and practice during the time of socialist dictatorship. At first, even some Soviet ideologists had considered psychoanalysis to be compatible with Marxist ideology. However, over the course of a few years, socialist ideology exerted pressure on psychotherapy’s theory, training, and therapeutic practice. This was done initially on an ideological level, but later it increasingly resorted to physical violence as well, both there and through its export to a Hungary occupied by the Soviet army. All this was similar to its stand against the arts and literature. The first thing to appear as a result of this was a denial of the necessity of psychotherapy (stating that psychotherapy was only needed because of ‘capitalist market conditions’, with even the teaching of psychology being nearly stopped); later anyone could face serious repercussions for belonging to any school of psychotherapy, especially the analytic. It was also a part of the arsenal of those in power to put crucial centres of therapy decisively under the leadership of appropriately aligned neurophysiologists for long periods of time. The state kept these under strict control, and healing was reduced to medication procedures. The authors provide examples of the modest internal and external opportunities that nevertheless arose for prominent representatives of psychotherapy to solve these dilemmas. With the weakening of the dictatorship, the war on psychotherapy also subsided in a relative and inconsistent way. At this point, events in the politics of science were characterised by the degree of loyalty to the Soviet association, who were visibly abusing psychiatry, and the fight to preserve the relative independence of this field of science. The final part of the study touches upon one or two dilemmas of the heroic age of starting over that surfaced at the time of the political system’s change.

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. The arts and literature field showed a sharp rise from the 1950s but also a distinct decline during the seventies while health sciences showed a rapid and steady growth from the sixties and onwards. The hard sciences also showed a small decline

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