surfaces as [ɪzdahar]. An example where a root consonant assimilates to the pattern /t/ is the change of the radical /w/ to be a copy of /t/, so /ɪwtafaq/ “agreed” is realized as [ɪttafaq]. The assimilation that occurs when pattern and root consonants
Authors:W.J. Chi, Z.Y. Wang, J.M. Liu, C. Zhang, Y.H. Wu, and Y.J. Bai
Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient for plant growth and yield production, and rice grown in paddy soil mainly uses ammonium (NH4+) as its N source. Previous studies have shown that N status is tightly connected to plant defense; however, the roles of NH4+ uptake and assimilation in rice sheath blight disease response have not been studied previously. Here, we analyzed the effects of different N sources on plant defense against Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicated that rice plants grown in N-free conditions had higher resistance to sheath blight than those grown under N conditions. In greater detail, rice plants cultured with glutamine as the sole N source were more susceptible to sheath blight disease compared to the groups using NH4+ and nitrate (NO3–) as sole N sources. N deficiency severely inhibited plant growth; therefore, ammonium transporter 1;2 overexpressors (AMT1;2 OXs) were generated to test their growth and defense ability under low N conditions. AMT1;2 OXs increased N use efficiency and exhibited less susceptible symptoms to R. solani and highly induced the expression of PBZ1 compared to the wild-type controls upon infection of R. solani. Furthermore, the glutamine synthetase 1;1 (GS1;1) mutant (gs1;1) was more susceptible to R. solani infection than the wild-type control, and the genetic combination of AMT1;2 OX and gs1;1 revealed that AMT1;2 OX was less susceptible to R. solani and required GS1;1 activity. In addition, cellular NH4+ content was higher in AMT1;2 OX and gs1;1 plants, indicating that NH4+ was not directly controlling plant defense. In conclusion, the present study showed that the activation of NH4+ uptake and assimilation were required for rice resistance against sheath blight disease.
. Silber (Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1992), 176.
Miklós Konrád, "Zsidó jótékonyság és asszimiláció a századfordulón" [Jewish charity and assimilation at the turn of the twentieth century], Történelmi Szemle
phonological rules. If a segment becomes more similar to the speech sound preceding or following it, we speak about assimilation. Assimilation can be so strong that a contrastive segment may lose its distinctive power fully or partially which might hinder its
Authors:M. Zych, A. Stolarczyk, K. Maca, A. Banaś, K. Termińska-Pabis, A. Kapuścik, S. Klasik, and J. Burczyk
Differences in the assimilation of individual organic compounds (5 mM sugars and L-asparagine) under mixotrophic growth conditions were described for three naturally occurring
strains.The effects of assimilation were measured by the growth intensity and size of algal cells, and the effect of colour changes in the cultures was observed. Some compounds caused the cell colouration to change from green to yellow, being the result of chlorophyll disappearance and the accumulation of yellow secondary carotenoids. In the present experiment none of the cultures turned red, thus excluding the intense accumulation of the commercially interesting carotenoid, astaxanthin.
Summary The assimilation of the Jewish minority (as well as the German and Hungarian ones) was widely discussed in Czechoslovakia after 1918. The situation was more pressing in the Slovak part, especially due to a large population of mostly orthodox Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia. Their political, economic, and social emancipation was in the beginning stages compared with other parts of Central Europe. Gejza Vámoš (1901-1956) addressed the forms and conditions of Jewish assimilation in Slovakia in his novel Odlomená haluz (Broken Branch, 1934). Vámoš himself came from a Hungarian-speaking Jewish family and was an eager adherent of assimilation. His novel was set in Upper Hungary (Slovakia) during the last years of the Austro- Hungarian Monarchy, but he dealt with assimilation from the perspective of the contemporary Czechoslovak Republic. He discussed the degree of assimilation in different regions of Central Eastern Europe, and claimed that it was more successful in the southern than in the northern part. He also focused on the differences between Jews in Hungary itself and in Upper Hungary. Vámoš wished to show that the precondition of successful assimilation is for the Jews to forsake their outdated religious and mercantile practices. Jews should be proud of their historical tradition and intellectual heritage, but they should strive to adopt the culture, as well as the (secular) worldview and mentality, of the nation they are in. This general doctrine of assimilation is exemplified by the story of a Jewish boy who unexpectedly changes his identity and, taking his non-Jewish father's name, also accepts his father's worldview. This narrative line contains obvious features of Bildungsroman: a change of attitudes and perceptions, along with the mixing of the races, could lead to a new, united mankind. Vámoš believed in the power of education and the natural sciences. His theory of assimilation encompassed various ideological sources, such as social Darwinism, modern Jewish Messianism, as well as ideas on nation-building (including Masaryk's). Vámoš probably wished to act as a mediator in relations between Slovaks and Jews, and to break with the tradition in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Slovak literature of portraying Jews negatively. Nevertheless, his book - in spite of its vision of a united mankind and its praise of Jewish heritage - contained numerous negative stereotypes of Jews. When excerpts of the novel were published, several lawsuits were brought against Vámoš. The discussion of Broken Branch was centered round several questions: What role would this book play in the contemporary political situation in regard to Judaism? What is the nature of the relation between reality and fiction? What are the limits of artistic freedom? The reaction to the novel showed the political polarization of Slovak society in the 1930s, and contributed indirectly to Vámoš's decision to leave the country in 1939.
Lapland] . Porvoo : WSOY .
Mills , Sherylle 1996 Indigenous Music and the Law: An Analysis of National and International Legislation . Yearbook for Traditional Music 28 : 57 – 86 .
Minde , Henry 2005 Assimilation of the Sámi