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Astrology plays a significant role in the Neo-Latin poetry of Janus Pannonius (1434–1472), the most renowned humanist of Hungary. The article investigates the various forms of astrological ideas in that part of his oeuvre where a specific interest in astrological topics can be witnessed: the works concerned are letters, elegies and epigrams composed in Hungary. Previous research into this topic has neglected to face the problem of the heterogeneity of astrology and to explore in detail the biographicalhistorical context, and some scholars have argued that Janus deeply believed in astrology. Instead, I will conclude that the appearance of astrological ideas can simply be explained by biographical, literary historical, intellectual historical factors. The argument concerns not only one particular person but also the intellectual life of mid-fifteenth century Hungary, and the habits of the Renaissance mind in general.

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I will present a new interpretation of Trimalchio’s “learned” horoscope at Petr. Sat. 39. The aim is to point out that Trimalchio neither entirely comes out as amateur astrologer nor is his horoscope fully based on astrological treatises of his times. On the contrary, Trimalchio undertakes a widely unlearned methodological approach, recycles however astrological material and mixes this up with erudite puns at the internal recipients (the scholastici Agamemnon, Encolpius and co. who attend the dinner, yet fail to be worthy their profession).

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As a first step towards the exposition of the contents and character of King Matthias’ natural scientific erudition and the exploration of the background and motives of the ruler’s literary patronage, we have investigated the king’s natural scientific and philosophical interest. Data from already well-known fields (astronomy and astrology, alchemy, magic), as well as evidence that has been neglected so far show that from among the studies on nature the king most intensely dealt with occult sciences, and this interest also dominated his scientific patronage, mainly his significant support of astronomy. It also influenced his affinity and commitment to Neoplatonism, the basis of which consisted of the knowledge of the teaching of Apuleius, who was well known and also honoured as a magician throughout the Middle Ages, and called by the epithet “platonicus” due to the corpus of his works. In his De vita dedicated to Matthias, offering much occult-hermetic knowledge, Marsilio Ficino adapted himself to this taste of the king. Before the making of Ficino’s translations and his Platonism, the works of Apuleius were one of the most important Platonic sources to the West and to Ficino himself; they cleared the ground for the reception of Plato’s works and of Greek Platonic-Hermetic philosophical writings.

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This study tries to give an overview of the varied connections between word and image in the calendars and other popular works (penny books, manuscript song collections) of the late Renaissance and Baroque. The author investigates the associations and influences from different fields of culture, considers ancient topoi and archetypes which underwent a great many transformations over space and time. In the first part of this paper are examined some non-traditional figures in the calendar for 1578 (Kolozsvár-Cluj, Heltai’s office) like mermaids/sirens in the role of Aquarius and Virgo, and the appearence of these figures on the painted furniture and ceiling panels of 18th -century Calvinist churches in Hungary.

The second part of this article deals with some typical title pages of calendars, edited in different printing houses of Upper Hungary (by Lorentz Brewer in Lőcse/Levoča, the serie Calendarium Tyrnaviense, Nagyszombat/Trnava) from the second half of the 17th century, and with the calendars of David Frölich, published in Breslau (Wrocław, PL) between 1623 and 1646.

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Petrarca Argus c. eclogájáról, jóllehet a Bucolicum carmen föltehetőleg legkorábban keletkezett darabja, mindeddig nem született önálló tanulmány. Az eddigi kutatás a mű antik előképei közül szinte kizárólag Vergilius pásztori költészetének hatásával számolt, a föltűnően nagyszámú epikus allúziót, Ovidius, Statius, Claudianus hatását azonban alig vizsgálták, ez az egyoldalúság pedig könnyen vezethet kevéssé helytálló értelmezésekhez. A dolgozat az allúziók alaposabb föltárásával a költemény szerkezetének és igen összetett jelképiségének értelmezésére tesz kísérletet.

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Antik Tanulmányok
Authors: Zoltán Kádár, Zsuzsanna Csibra, Péter Mayer, László Takács, and Gábor Hamza

Gesztelyi Tamás: Antike Gemmen im Ungarischen Nationalmuseum. Budapest 2000. Barton, Tamsyn: Ancient Astrology. London 1994Parker, Victor: Untersuchungen zum Lelantischen Krieg und verwandten Problemen der frühgriechischen Geschichte. StuttgartSchubert, Christoph: Studien zum Nerobild in der Lateinischen Dichtung der Antike. Stuttgart und Leipzig 1998. Hausmaninger, H.-Selb, W: Römisches Privatrecht.Wien 2001.

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. m . (3. j.) 260–293. 8 Bartha L.: Csillag-csodák. Vénusz a nappali égen. Ponticulus Hungaricus 20/7 (2016). https:// ponticulus.hu/rovatok/hidverok/bartha-lajos-csillagcsodak.html. 9 Orbán Á.: The nature of astrology in Janus Pannonius’ works

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Tacitus evokes the gods several times in the Histories and the Annals. Nevertheless, it is difficult to have a firm opinion on the historian's religiosity and many assumptions were proposed on this subject. As a matter of fact, he always tries to establish a distinction between uera and falsa prodigia and remains careful as for the interpretation which one can give them, but he doesn't show any real scepticism. His reflection on the Fatum lets think that he reconciles astrological fatalism with the stoic design of the destiny. The tacitean Fatum reveals a cosmological order born of the tension between determinism and human freedom, fate and chance. In Tacitus'opinion, ira deorum shows the role of the gods: they punish those whocan put at evil the order of the Roman community, they mark the limits not to be crossed, because to commit a crime can constitute a stain which is likely to stick to the respublica and to break the agreement between Rome and the celestial forces.

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Abstract  

One of the earliest measuring instruments used by human beings was the balance; evidence of this dates back more than 5.000 years. Initially, the weights of goods were measures rather of value than of mass. Besides yardsticks and graduated cups, scales are today the most widespread instruments, found in almost all laboratories, factories and households. Indeed, the balance accompanies us from birth to death. The balance very early achieved a metaphorical meaning and was used for the comparison of ethical values. It first appeared as an instrument in the death tribunal in Egyptian religion and later in Christianity. In the hands of the Grecian Gods, weighing was a deciding factor as concerns victory or death. In Judaism and for the Romans, scales become the symbol of justice. Several trade and handicraft guilds currently use the balance as an attribute, demonstrating in this way their sincerity and accuracy. The balance is of dubious significance in astrology, as one of the signs of the zodiac.

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In the years 1994-1996 a painted vault of a house in the Roman civilian town Brigetio was excavated in present-day Komárom/Szőny, Hungary. The wall-paintings, which date back to the late 2nd-early 3rd cents. A.D., represent the personifications of the Four Seasons as female busts in the corners, four panthers in the middle of the side-walls and a circular central motive with the figure of a nude woman and a horse. On the basis of relevant astrological sources the paintings on the vault can be interpreted as symbolic representations of the spheres of the sky (the aer and the aether) and of eternity. The central medallion, which creates a delusive impression of an oculus, shows the fixed constellations Andromeda and Pegasus in the highest spheres of the sky. Parallel ideas from the Roman pagan art and the Christian / early Byzantine art indicate that the concept was widespread from the 1st to the 6th cents. A.D., being echoed also by the descriptions and illustrations in some sources of the late antiquity, like, for instance, the Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes.

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