The inability of traditional risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking to explain the incidence of atherosclerosis (AT) in about 50% of the cases prompted a search for additional putative risk factors involved in the development of the disease. Infectious agents have long been suspected to initiate/contribute to the process of AT. It has also been suggested that inflammation, either related to infectious agents or independent from infection, may mediate the atherogenic process [1, 2].
Introduction Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune inflammatory disease of the arterial walls characterized by formation of atherosclerotic plaques [ 1 ]. The major clinical manifestations of the disease are peripheral arterial disease, ischemic heart
, Konstantinou D , Kovatsi L , Chatzizisis Y , Mikhailidis D : Association of reduced zinc status with angiographically severe coronary atherosclerosis: a pilot study . Angiology 61 ( 5 ), 449 – 455 ( 2010 )
Atherosclerosis is a disease related to the alteration of the endothelium (intima), with the accumulation of white blood cells. Furthermore, smooth muscle cells migrate to the intima facilitating the formation of
Introduction Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease marked by the deposition of lipids and fibrous components in the large arteries and eventually leading to clinical complications like myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerotic plaque
, no clear pattern was discovered in women [ 3 ]. The meta-analysis of 11 studies was an indication that there was an inverse relationship between increased bilirubin concentrations and atherosclerosis severity in men. There was a 6.5% decrease in