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Introduction Karate is a polystructural acyclic sport ( 36 ), characterized by an intermittent physical activity, engaging very intense punches and kicks ( 9 , 43 ). Karate elite athletes are usually prescribed a mixed

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intermittent hypoxic training on ultrastructural and metabolic changes in the liver induced by fluorine and low doses of radiation Physiol. J. 52 90 – 98 . [18]. A. E. Aubert B. Seps F. Beckers 2003 Heart rate variability in athletes

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Physiology International
Authors:
M Zdravkovic
,
B Milovanovic
,
S Hinic
,
I Soldatovic
,
T Durmic
,
G Koracevic
,
S Prijic
,
O Markovic
,
B Filipovic
, and
D Lovic

Introduction Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiographic changes in athletes are common and usually reflect structural and electrical remodeling of the heart as an adaptation to regular physical training and hemodynamic

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Versenysportolók hirtelen szívhalálának elemzése, az esetszámok csökkentésének lehetőségei

Analysis of sudden cardiac death in competitive athletes, possibilities for reducing cases

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Zsuzsanna Major
,
Zoltán Medvegy
,
Tímea Terézia Tulit
,
Gábor Simonyi
,
Gábor Pavlik
, and
Mihály Medvegy

? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 42: 1959–1963. 4 Maron BJ. Sudden death in young athletes. N Eng J Med. 2003; 349: 1064

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) 2. Bianco M , Bria S , Gianfelici A , Sanna N , Palmieri V , Zeppilli P : Does early repolarization in the athlete have analogies with the Brugada syndrome? Eur

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Gábor Pavlik
,
Zs. Major
,
B. Varga-Pintér
,
M. Jeserich
, and
Zs. Kneffel

Importance of the athlete’s heart has been arisen in the last decades.

  1. Consequences of the sedentary way of life are the most threatening through the impairments of the cardiovascular system. Endurance performance is mostly limited by the characteristics of the athlete’s heart. Sudden death of the athletes is always associated with cardiac disorders.
Main characteristics of the athlete’s heart can be divided into morphologic, functional and regulatory ones.
  1. The main morphologic characteristics are the physiologic left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and a richer coronary capillary network. The functional adaptation contains a better systolic and diastolic function, modified metabolism and electric characteristics. The most easily detected modification is the better LV diastolic function. Adaptation of the cardiac regulation is manifested mostly by a lower heart rate (HR).
Summarizing: the athlete’s heart is an enlarged but otherwise normal heart characterized by a low heart rate, an increased pumping capacity, and a greater ability to deliver oxygen to skeletal muscle.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
Zsolt Komka
,
E. Bosnyák
,
E. Trájer
,
A. Protzner
,
Zs. Major
,
G. Pavlik
,
M. Tóth
, and
A. Udvardy

References 1. B.J. Maron 2007 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and other causes of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Zs. Major
,
E. Csajági
,
Zs. Kneffel
,
T. Kováts
,
I. Szauder
,
Z. Sidó
, and
Gábor Pavlik

Apor A, Merkely B, Morrell T, Zhu S, Ghosh E, Vágó H, Andrássy P, Kovács SJ: Diastolic function in Olympic athletes versus controls: Stiffness-based and relaxation-based echocardiographic comparisons. J. Exerc

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Ricardo de la Vega
,
Irini S. Parastatidou
,
Roberto Ruíz-Barquín
, and
Attila Szabo

, 2010 ), which inherently involves a certain degree of passion for and dedication to the activity. New theoretical surmise ( Szabo, Griffiths, de la Vega, Mervó, & Demetrovics, 2015 ) posits that the elite or competitive athlete may conceptualize the

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Introduction Sport psychology encompasses various methodologies and approaches focusing on two main objectives: mental health enhancement and performance enhancement. While athletes and coaches focus primarily on results and physical performance, a

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