This paper explores the iconography of two prints owned by Haydn, the traditions to which they belonged and their aesthetic consequences. The prints depict two contrasting audiences, one amused and the other despondent, and feature a range of iconographic references that Haydn would have readily responded to, including such themes as the death of Dido, the world of Tristram Shandy, the madness of Orlando and Don Quixote, the humorous verse of Peter Pindar (one of Haydn’s librettists) and inevitably (in prints of this kind) contemporary English politics. A particular point of interest is a caricature of Edward Topham, an amateur caricaturist and founding editor of the influential newspaper
, featured in one of the prints. In a series of issues in the late 1780s
published a ‘correspondence’ with Haydn himself, which sought to undermine the composer’s suitability for composing with London audiences’ in mind. The print may have helped serve to remind Haydn of this dispute at the time he actually began composing in London and to aid him in keeping such audiences in mind when composing for them.
Men and women estimated the prevalence of extra-pair paternity within the United States under exposure to two social influence manipulations. In addition, extra-pair paternity was framed to either emphasize potential harm to men (i.e., nonpaternity) or women (i.e., polygyny). Among men, perceived nonpaternity and polygyny were both lowest when estimates were personally identifiable (i.e., non-anonymous) and intended for a female audience. Although women's nonpaternity estimates were unaffected by social influence, perceived polygyny was lowest among women when estimates were personally identifiable and intended for a male audience. In general, this research suggests that sex differences in perceived extra-pair paternity may stem from the use of strategic impression management tactics, while also suggesting that sex differences in prevalence estimates may reflect more than comparatively lower awareness among men.
Folksong settings are usually the least appreciated works of a composer. Focusing on Béla Bartók's guiding principles in creating folksong settings, the author examine the motivations that have driven other composers to use folk material in their works. The spread of the idea of nationalism, resulting in the endeavor to create an idiomatic national language of music played the lead in many cases. But the folksong as an exotic object also exerted an enormous appeal on composers and audiences alike, making folksong settings generally, but not always, a profitable undertaking as well. In the long run, the artistic quality of the folksong, its expressive power despite its succinct form, fascinated composers and inspired them to create a wealth of folksong settings.
Since the advent of the Nuclear Age mankind has been both fascinated by the potential of nuclear processes, and fearful of its destructive power. Nuclear technologies have undergone rapid development, while most of society is left with a poor understanding about the benefits and risks involved. Our Nuclear Society: from Chemobyl to PET Scans, and Energy, Technology and Risk are two courses developed at the University of Maryland in an effort to introduce students from all backgrounds to issues and applications of nuclear science. Course material and presentation strategies are geared toward keeping the course interesting and informative for all students.
This paper is an attempt to apply Roger Caillois’ “théorie de la fête” to the contemporary music festivals in Poland and Hungary. The French ethnologist suggested that modernity does not provide the opportunity for collective vertigo, marginalizes the festival, and transforms it into a possibility that is difficult to achieve. Accordingto the results of my ethnographic fieldwork, the festival is a place of rest, fun, elation, rewarding belonging to a community, or even freedom at different levels. For many participants, it is a holiday in its purest form; a festival whose subject is music, but whose purpose is mental rest. In this context, the concept of festivalization should be redefined. In the analyzed cases (Jarocin Festival, OFF Festival, and O.Z.O.R.A. Festival), festivalization is not reduced to specific, collective forms of consumption; it also means the possibility of creating specific space-times of rest and freedom.
This paper considers when and on what subjects Thucydides supplies background information (of geographical and other kinds) to help his readers, and concludes that, although he was inconsistent, he did try to grapple with the problem and to realise that there were some matters with which his readers might not be familiar.