Authors:J. Chen, L. Wang, W.H. Liu, J. Shi, Y. Zhong, S.J. Liu, and S.M. Liu
production involving the reduction of O 2− levels [ 11 ]. Autophagy is a life phenomenon in eukaryotic cells that plays a valuable role in metabolism. The LC3 II/I ratio is used as an indicator of autophagy–mitophagy flux. The p62 protein, which is also
Authors:JJ McCormick, TA VanDusseldorp, CG Ulrich, RL Lanphere, K Dokladny, PL Mosely, and CM Mermier
Autophagy (literally translated as “self-eating”) is a lysosome degradation pathway through which damaged organelles and macromolecules are degraded within the cell ( 28 , 29 ). The autophagic process plays a
The process of autophagy, or bulk degradation of cellular proteins and organelles through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway constantly functions in all eukary- otic cells. Also a type of physiological cell death exists, which is best characterized with the strenghtening of the autophagic process, but no DNA degradation or caspase activation can be detected, in contrast to apoptosis . Autophagy can be promoted in various ways: addiction of certain drugs (like vin- blastine ), hormones (like 20-hidroxy-ecdysone ) or simply nutrition d&epriva- tion  leads to the increased amount of proteins degraded by lysosomal enzymes. The isolation and cloning of yeast autophagy mutants gives an excellent opportu- nity to examine their putative homologs in Drosophila melanogaster. Fourteen genes have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for autophagy , based on several mutant phenotypes, &like the sorting problems of vacuolar enzymes such as carboxypeptidase Y or aminopeptidase I, or the less of viability and the inability of degrading cytosolic proteins like fatty acid synthase during starvation. Nine of them (apg5, apg6, apg7, apg12, aut1, aut2, aut7, aut9, vps4) appear to have clear homologs in the fly and human genome, using the BLAST tools at http://work- bench.sdsc.edu, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov and http://www.fruitfly.org (BLASTN, TBLASTN services) for sequence similarity searches. The sequence alignment of the yeast, fly and human proteins can be seen in Figure 1. The high degree of similarity suggests existing homology among these genes, although new and lost functions were identified in some cases . Remarkably, vps4 exists in two slightly different copies in human, and aut7 exists in multiple different copies as well (two in Drosophila and three in Homo), suggesting different roles, or at least different regulation. As expected, fly and human genes are much more simi- lar to each other than to the yeast homolog, promising that Drosophila experiments will better contribute to the understanding of the roles of these genes in detail in high- er eukaryotes. The precise function of these genes is still unclear, however, molecu-
Authors:Sabine Schäfer-Somi, Okan Ali Aksoy, Osman Ergene, Isfendiyar Darbaz, Kurt R. Herkner, and Selim Aslan
Witkin , S. S. , Kanninen , T. T. and Sisti , G. ( 2017 ): The role of Hsp70 in the regulation of autophagy in gametogenesis, pregnancy, and parturition . Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell. Biol. 222 , 117 – 127 .