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Baehrecke EH: Autophagy: dual roles in life and death? Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6, 505–510 (2005) Baehrecke E.H. Autophagy: dual roles in life and death? Nat

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Rautou, P. E., Mansouri, A., Lebrec, D. és mtsai: Autophagy in liver disease. J. Hepatol., 2010, 53 , 1123–1134. Lebrec D. Autophagy in liver disease J

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production involving the reduction of O 2− levels [ 11 ]. Autophagy is a life phenomenon in eukaryotic cells that plays a valuable role in metabolism. The LC3 II/I ratio is used as an indicator of autophagy–mitophagy flux. The p62 protein, which is also

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Seglen, P. O., Bohley, P. (1992) Autophagy and other vacuolar protein degradation mechanisms. Experientia 48 , 158-172. Autophagy and other vacuolar protein degradation mechanisms

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Barbara Kovács, Nikoletta Hegedűs, Mihály Bálint, Zsuzsa Szabó, Tamás Emri, Gréta Kiss, Miklós Antal, István Pócsi, and Éva Leiter

Yoromitsu, T., Klionsky, D.J.: Autophagy: Molecular machinery for self-eating. Cell Death Differ 12 , 1542–1552 (2005). Klionsky DJ Autophagy: Molecular machinery for self

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Physiology International
Authors: JJ McCormick, TA VanDusseldorp, CG Ulrich, RL Lanphere, K Dokladny, PL Mosely, and CM Mermier

Introduction Autophagy (literally translated as “self-eating”) is a lysosome degradation pathway through which damaged organelles and macromolecules are degraded within the cell ( 28 , 29 ). The autophagic process plays a

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–171. 2 Rautou PE, Mansouri A, Lebrec D, et al. Autophagy in liver disease. J Hepatol. 2010; 53: 1123–1134. 3 Ueno T, Komatsu M. Autophagy in the liver

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The process of autophagy, or bulk degradation of cellular proteins and organelles through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway constantly functions in all eukary- otic cells. Also a type of physiological cell death exists, which is best characterized with the strenghtening of the autophagic process, but no DNA degradation or caspase activation can be detected, in contrast to apoptosis [2]. Autophagy can be promoted in various ways: addiction of certain drugs (like vin- blastine [6]), hormones (like 20-hidroxy-ecdysone [3]) or simply nutrition d&epriva- tion [5] leads to the increased amount of proteins degraded by lysosomal enzymes. The isolation and cloning of yeast autophagy mutants gives an excellent opportu- nity to examine their putative homologs in Drosophila melanogaster. Fourteen genes have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for autophagy [5], based on several mutant phenotypes, &like the sorting problems of vacuolar enzymes such as carboxypeptidase Y or aminopeptidase I, or the less of viability and the inability of degrading cytosolic proteins like fatty acid synthase during starvation. Nine of them (apg5, apg6, apg7, apg12, aut1, aut2, aut7, aut9, vps4) appear to have clear homologs in the fly and human genome, using the BLAST tools at http://work- bench.sdsc.edu, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov and http://www.fruitfly.org (BLASTN, TBLASTN services) for sequence similarity searches. The sequence alignment of the yeast, fly and human proteins can be seen in Figure 1. The high degree of similarity suggests existing homology among these genes, although new and lost functions were identified in some cases [7]. Remarkably, vps4 exists in two slightly different copies in human, and aut7 exists in multiple different copies as well (two in Drosophila and three in Homo), suggesting different roles, or at least different regulation. As expected, fly and human genes are much more simi- lar to each other than to the yeast homolog, promising that Drosophila experiments will better contribute to the understanding of the roles of these genes in detail in high- er eukaryotes. The precise function of these genes is still unclear, however, molecu-

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: Autophagy and pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity. Immunological Reviews, 2009, 27 , 189–202. Haro S. Autophagy and pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Sabine Schäfer-Somi, Okan Ali Aksoy, Osman Ergene, Isfendiyar Darbaz, Kurt R. Herkner, and Selim Aslan

. Witkin , S. S. , Kanninen , T. T. and Sisti , G. ( 2017 ): The role of Hsp70 in the regulation of autophagy in gametogenesis, pregnancy, and parturition . Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell. Biol. 222 , 117 – 127 .

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