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In 1913 László Éber wrote a paper about the rood screen of the baroque cathedral of Vác. He was the first who revealed that sixteen pieces from the renaissance-style carved stone elements of the rood screen were made in the late medieval period. the stone material of the pieces is marl of the Buda region. there were other stone carvings masoned in the cathedral: four dividing pillars of this balustrade, other two with Jagellonian signs from red marble and two tables with the coat of arms of Miklós Báthori (bishop of Vác, 1474–1506). The balustrade elements can be seen in the baroque cathedral thought to be in strong connections with some dividing pillars from Buda castle. there were two ideas about the dating of the Vác balustrade: either they were made during the reign of King Matthias corvinus or after his death during the Jagellonian era. In 1992 árpád Mikó discovered a barrel on the backside of one pillar, which is one of the emblems of King Matthias. there is another important question: what was the original finding place of the pillars? Éber wrote, that it is plausible that Miklós Báthori was the order of the balustrade and it was stood in the medieval cathedral of Vác, which was destroyed during the Ottoman era. is it possible that they came from the site, which now laid under and around the baroque Franciscan church and monastery in Vác? I examined the written sources from the 18–19th centuries and it turned out, that there is no information about it.

On the other hand, there are several other renaissance fragments from Vác, most of them were also made of marl of the Buda region. the fragments kept by the local museum came into light by archaeological excavations between 1912 and 2019, on the site where the medieval episcopate laid. From the first time, researchers (based on Éber) wrote that the findings stand close to the ones in the cathedral’s rood screen. Most of them are well known – we could say – because tibor Koppány published every known piece in 1994. He wrote about a few other balustrade fragments too, but his descriptions are very short, and we can see drawings of only ca. one-third of all pieces. so i decided to see the original fragments and found that those small pieces kept by the museum don’t come from that balustrade can be seen today in the cathedral.

The most important difference is the shaping of the baluster’s foot rings. they are divided: there is a vertical section and after that, the ring widens into a curved form. Furthermore, the image field of the dividing pillars framed in a more complex mode. On the image fields probably tapes, garlands, trophies were carved, but there is not any intact one, only very small pieces, which came to light in every corner of the site. so the balustrade’s original place couldn’t be determined certainly. nevertheless, because of the fine surfaces of the carvings, i think the balustrade stood inside, maybe in the medieval cathedral, perhaps in the chapel of saint nicolaus where Miklós Báthori was buried.

Among the early renaissance-style pieces known from the medieval Hungarian Kingdom, there are a few analogies. First of all, we can see the very same solution on the foot rings of the Jagellonian era dividing pillars from Hungarian red marble in Vác. they belong to a group of red marble carvings: the other elements of this group can be found in Buda and esztergom. Furthermore, from the marl of the Buda region stone material i know only one other example where the baluster foot rings are similar: the gallery of the castle chapel in siklós. so i think we can say certainly that the „new” balustrade fragments from Vác were made during the Jagellonian era.

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A prágai Szent Vitus-székesegyház királyi oratóriumának címersora közép-európai összefüggésben

Jagelló és Habsburg dinasztikus heraldikai reprezentáció a késő középkorban

Coats of arms on the Royal Oratory in Prague’s Saint Vitus Cathedral in Central European context

Heraldic representation of the Jagiellonian and Habsburg dynasties in the late middle ages
Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Géza Pálffy

The study examines the series of coats of arms of the Hungarian and Bohemian Lands on the late Gothic Royal Oratory of the Cathedral of Saint Vitus in Prague in a Central European context. The analysis of the history of coats of arms of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, principally that of Bosnia resulted in three new findings. On the one hand, contrary to previous concepts the creation of the series of coats of arms and along with this the completion of the oratory did not took place in the first half of the 1490’s, that is, at the beginning of the reign of Wladislaw, king of Hungary and Bohemia (1490–1516), but presumably in the 1510–1520’s. The occasion must have offered itself during the Bohemian sojourn of Louis II, king of Hungary and Bohemia (1516–1526) and his wife in 1522–1523, and presumably the coronation of Mary of Hungary in the Cathedral of Saint Vitus on June 6, 1522. On the other hand, the Bosnian coat of arms proves that the coats of arms of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown on the Royal Oratory were taken over from the heraldic representation of Emperor Maximilian I in Innsbruck instead of those of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Prague or Buda, where those were present on several such memorials from the late 1490s on (Wappenturm, Triumphzug, Ehrenpforte, etc.). Namely, at this time it was only in Habsburg heraldic representations that Bosnia was represented by the armored arm holding a sword, while in Hungarian practice the south Slavic kingdom’s coat of arms included two crowns. Thirdly, based on new research it can be stated that the coat of arms of Upper Lusatia, situated on the balustrade, could have been placed among the coats of arms of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown only during an erroneous restoration attempt at the end of the 19th century. Originally the coat of arms standing between those of the kingdoms of Dalmatia and Bosnia must have been that of Croatia whose checkered coat of arms was probably confused with the similar one of Upper Lusatia depicting a castle wall.

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Budaörs Airport is a work of modern architecture built in 1937 in a country that was fundamentally conservative in its political outlook, and was the first public airport in Hungary that met European standards. It was designed by the architects Virgil Bierbauer and László Králik. The airport architecture made use of the lessons learned, both positive and negative, from countless airports in other countries. In this regard it successfully overcame the technical and other problems faced by designers in European countries, which had made it necessary to redesign the airports in these countries in the midthirties. The building was simultaneously modern and pragmatic. Its overhead view, with the side wings attached to the circular passenger hall, clearly shows the purpose of the building. Budaörs Airport was built as a transit airport: it was intended to have an important geopolitical role in connecting air passengers from Central Europe with other countries and continents in the world. In the 1920s, countless airports had been constructed in Europe to deal with air traffic between the different countries and between Europe and their colonies. Hungary, however, had long been excluded from this development, due to the terms of the peace treaties that concluded the First World War. It was not until the mid-1930s that the country had the chance to break free from these restrictions. Budaörs Airport became a symbol both of this newfound liberty and of the start of modern civil aviation, while its creation was also closely linked to the changing lifestyle of the 1920s and 1930s.

The interior of the airport was also designed to meet the expectations of the modern human with an interest in all the new things of the world. The interior decoration of the passenger hall was quite innovative: bearing in mind the philosophical background underlying modern movements in art, it combined the compositional approach of painting (aeropittura, Expressionism) with the techniques of photomontage and murals. This composition, known by the title of “The Experience of Flight,” aimed to fill the room with a vision of flight, based partly on realistic and partly on imaginary images, to inspire passengers arriving in the passenger hall, as well as whoever accompanied them. Running all the way around the upstairs balustrade, the enormous photomontage – photofrieze, photomural – was the result of collaboration between the architect Virgil Bierbauer and the painter and photographer Ada Ackermann (Mrs Elemér Marsovszky), and was made using aerial photographs from Hungary and Europe.

By presenting Budaörs Airport in detail, this study is intended as a contribution to investigations into the unique modern architectural world of airport architecture and to the evaluation of the decorative and propagandistic role played by photography.

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28.2. Flight of stone stairs, terrace, balustrade 28.3. Spout-well 28.4. Hermitage

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). 23 Behind a balustrade the simulacra of the Penates are visible, which, according to an account by Dionysius, 24 are works of ancient craftsmanship that represent two seated young people holding spears. This

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key disadvantages. To achieve a good aesthetic surface of decorative composites, which allows for their multilateral application (decorative stamp concrete, pots, balustrade, ornamental stones, restoration of architectural monuments, decoration of

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de vastes escaliers renforcés de motifs, lesquels, à leur tour, rappelle les riches balustrades, consoles et poteaux des églises basques, dont Godbarge disait lui-même qu’elles étaient des « sources inépuisables d’inspiration pour le menuisier 20

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