Authors:V. Krstanović, A. Lalić, I. Kosović, N. Velić, Kristina Mastanjević and K. Mastanjević
Although β-glucans in cereals are desirable as healthy diet components, high levels of β-glucans in malting barley are unacceptable because they can cause unsatisfactory degradation of cell walls during malting. The aim of this study was to investigate the β-glucan content in twelve Croatian and two German barley varieties at three representative locations in Eastern Croatia over three consecutive seasons (2012–2014). Total β-glucan content in barley samples was determined using enzymatic method. Most of the investigated barley varieties had total β-glucan content lower or significantly lower than 4%. Furthermore, a distinct and clear genotype influence was noticed. No significant difference was found between years, but between locations Osijek and Tovarnik.
The separate roles of ethylene and gibberellins on seed germination have not been clearly established. This has limited full utilisation of these hormones in barley malting. This study was carried out to investigate the roles of gibberellins and ethylene on the germination physiology of ‘Puma’ barley seeds. Germination curves, percent germination, rootlets length and respiration rates of seeds treated with ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), gibberellic acid (GA3), daminozide (B-nine), GA3 + ethylene, GA3 + 1-MCP, ethylene + B-nine, 1-MCP + B-nine and the control were compared after 24, 48 and 72 h from soaking, respectively. GA3 and ethylene treatments were used to investigate the effects of increasing endogenous ethylene and GA3 levels, respectively. B-nine and 1-MCP treatments were used to assess the effects of inhibiting gibberellins synthesis and ethylene perception, respectively. Combination treatments were used to assess hormonal interactions. GA3 and ethylene treatments suppressed germination after 24 h, but, had no effect after 48 and 72 h, respectively. B-nine, ethylene + B-nine and 1-MCP + B-nine suppressed germination, rootlet elongation and respiration after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. 1-MCP and GA3 + 1-MCP stimulated germination after 24 h, but, had no effect after 48 and 72 h, respectively. GA3 + ethylene treatment suppressed germination and rootlet elongation but stimulated respiration after 24 h. Ethylene suppressed rootlets elongation after 24, 48 and 72 h from soaking, respectively. GA appeared to be the dominant germination hormone, and ethylene, to regulate the rate of germination through suppression of rootlets elongation.
., Qualset, C. O. and McLean, D. L. (1988): Feeding response of Rhopalosiphum padi to barley yellow dwarf virus in resistant and susceptible barleyvarieties. Environmental Entomology 17, 988-991.
Feeding response of Rhopalosiphum
Authors:V. Greveniotis, O. Xanthopoulou, E. Pessios, P. Deligeorgidis, D. Stefanis and C. Ipsilandis
Riggs, T.J., Hanson, P.R., Start, N.D., Miles, D.M., Morgan, C.L., Ford, M.A. 1981. Comparison of spring barleyvarieties grown in England and Wales between 1880 and 1980. J. Agric. Sci.
Several genotypes of barley have been developed by Crop Development Center. However, no quantitative evaluation of true protein supply to ruminants has been done in terms of protein degradation balance (PDB) and total metabolizable protein supply (or total truly absorbed protein in the small intestines). The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of difference in terms of total metabolizable protein supply of five CDC feed-type barley cultivars in comparison to Canada’s most widely grown malting cultivar AC Metcalfe. Six, two row cultivars of spring sown barley, included AC Metcalfe, CDC Cowboy, CDC Dolly, CDC Helgason, CDC Trey and McLeod were grown in the research field of University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada for three consecutive years. The quantitative predictions were made in terms of: 1) Rumen synthesized microbial protein truly absorbed in the small intestine (AMCP); 2) Rumen undegraded protein truly absorbed in the small intestine (ARUP); 3) Endogenous protein in the digestive tract (AECP); 4) Total metabolizable protein supply in the small intestine. The results showed that CDC barley variety differed (P < 0.05) in AMCP ranging from 34 to 40 g/kg DMand AECP, but had no difference (P > 0.05) in ARUP with average of 48 g/kg DM. Total metabolizable protein ranged (P < 0.05) from 85 to 92 g/kg DM. In conclusion, CDC barley variety affected total predicted metabolizable protein supply, but not to large extend. All the barley varieties had negative degraded protein balance value.
Vizsgálatunkban FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma) módszerrel határoztunk meg tizenhárom kompolti nemesítésű őszi árpa fajta különböző morfológiai frakcióinak antioxidáns aktivitását. A >250–<1000 µm frakcióban kaptuk a magasabb értékeket (515 ± 9,2 mg/kg C-vitamin egyenértékben). A <250 µm részben átlagosan 432 ± 8,2 mg/kg C-vitamin egyenértéket kaptunk. Eredményeink alapján megállapíthatjuk, hogy nagy variabilitás mutatkozik az egyes árpafajták között az antioxidáns aktivitás tekintetében. A különböző árpafajták eredményesen használhatóak fel a funkcionális élelmiszercélú növénynemesítésre.
Authors:Ildikó Karsai, B. Kőszegi, G. Kovács, P. Szűcs, Klára Mészáros, Z. Bedő and O. Veisz
In order to analyse the effects of temperature (9–22 °C) and light intensity (170–576 μmol m
) on plant development two barley varieties with contrasting seasonal growth habits were included in a series of experiments consisting of controlled environment tests. The effect of constant (18 °C) and daily fluctuating (18/16 °C) temperature with a long photoperiod was also examined in a set of barley varieties including winter, facultative and spring barleys. Dicktoo with facultative growth habit was more sensitive to unfavourable conditions than Kompolti korai with winter growth habit; the flowering of Dicktoo was significantly delayed by sub-and supra-optimal temperatures and low light intensity accompanied by higher or fluctuating temperatures. The optimal temperature at flowering was also significantly lower for Dicktoo than for Kompolti korai (16.0 °C vs. 21.0 °C, respectively). Plant development was the fastest when there was no fluctuating environmental factor in the growing conditions and was significantly delayed with application of photo cycle. The addition of thermo cycle to photo cycle had an even stronger delaying effect. Facultative barleys were the most sensitive, followed by winter barleys, while spring barleys the least sensitive to the introduction of thermo cycle.