Summary Isothermal titration microcalorimeters are submerged in an ambience at constant temperature and, this is the reason why there should not be variations in the baseline; but the experimental measures show that, in some cases, it is produced a jump in the baseline after the liquid injection. In this paper, it is studied the origin of this variation of the baseline in order to avoid it, if it is possible, or correct it and thus, to determine with the minimum error the amounts of energy or power developed in the energetic process that is being studied. The experimental results that are shown support the hypothesis that states that the cause of the baseline jump in an isothermal microcalorimeter is the variation of the thermal coupling between the content of the mixture cell and the axis of the stirrer, which is coupled, at the same time, with an area with a temperature slightly lower (in this case) than the thermostat temperature. This jump is independent from the dissipation and it always has the same sign. The magnitude of the baseline jump is variable and it mainly depends on the volume that the liquid content in a cell reaches and the placement of the stirrer within the cell, that can be changed in the handling process.
Authors:Malgorzata Wislowska, Dominik P. J. Heib, Hermann Griessenberger, Kerstin Hoedlmoser, and Manuel Schabus
., 2006 ; Schabus et al., 2008 ; Tucker and Fishbein, 2009 ).
In this paper, we sought to explore the influence of baseline memory performance (BMP) – i.e., a measure of encoding efficiency of new declarative material – on forgetting or the
Various types of transformations require different baselines reflecting specificities of these transitions. The present work deals with the case when a degree of transformation is directly proportional to heat consumed or released. For such case, a baseline is named an integral baseline and is traditionally constructed by unnecessary simplifications. A new method is proposed as an alternative fast and robust computational method for baseline construction utilizing interpolating cubic splines. The method is self-consistent in the sense that it is free of needless assumptions and that it provides linearity between the degree of transformation and heat measured.
Military considerations in the early 1770s declared the need for a systematic mapping of the eastern regions of Norway along the border to Sweden. After a failed attempt of direct map sketching in the field, the geographical circle was introduced in 1779 to establish a triangular network as a backbone for further positioning of natural and man-made features. The resulting maps were used in preparation of fortresses and planning of defensive field operations. The scale of the triangular network was established by an astronomical baseline supported by linear baselines measured on frozen lakes during winter time. Many stations had latitude determinations from circum-meridian observations of the sun and stars to control the precision of the geodetic triangulation. When discrepancies became too large, a new baseline and a new reference point was selected. The original reference point was the flagpole of the fortress at Kongsvinger, which served as the zero-meridian for mapping in Norway until 1850. Other reference sites, for which accurate latitude and longitude were determined from several years of astronomical observations, were established in Trondheim, Bergen, and Kristiansand as the original triangular arc was expanded around the entire coast of southern Norway to close at Kongsvinger after 3 decades of observations. This allowed astronomical control of the geodetic results.
Authors:S. Alcay, C. Inal, C. Yigit, and M. Yetkin
Nowadays, GPS is the best positioning system with its constellation, but number of GLONASS satellites increased to the required number, with launched new ones, for positioning. With recent revitalization of GLONASS, a great number of high precision GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS receivers have been produced. In this paper, baselines of two networks have been analyzed in order to assess the usability of GLONASS on global positioning. In both networks, repeatabilities of results were investigated by using GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS data. Results revealed that repeatabilities of all baselines by using GLONASS observations are not consistent when compared to the GPS and GPS/GLONASS.
A simple method is described for use with the differential scanning calorimeter for baseline interpolation in continual processes over a wide temperature interval. For the process of water desorption from the synthetic zeolite LiA with the coveragegq=1.5, the measured heat of desorption wasQ=11.2±0.5 kcal/mole.
Authors:V. García-Cuello, J. Moreno-Pirajan, L. Giraldo-Gutiérrez, K. Sapag, and G. Zgrablich
This work shows the results obtained to determine the noise in the baseline of a specially designed Tian Calvet-Type adsorption
microcalorimeter. The results show that noise levels vary from 0.5 to 10 μV, which were evaluated varying the electrical work
and the micro calorimeter surrounding temperature. Relationships can be seen between the variables employed in the observation
of stability, temperature, potency levels and generated noise.
Authors:Eric Iversen, Magnus Gulbrandsen, and Antje Klitkou
As the commercialization of academic research has risen as a target area in many countries, the need for better empirical
data collection to evaluate policy changes on this front has increasingly been recognized. This need is exemplified in the
Norwegian case where legislative changes went into effect in 2003 expressly to encourage greater commercialization through
patenting research results. This policy ambition faces the problem that no record of the patenting activity of academic researchers
is available before 2003 when the country’s “professor’s privilege” was phased out. This article addresses the fundamental
difficulty of how to empirically test the effect of such policy aims. It develops a methodology which can be used to reliably
baseline changes in the extent and focus of academic patents. The purpose is to describe the empirical approach and results,
while also providing insight into the changes in Norwegian policy on this front and their context.