The choice of the theme is interdisciplinary, drawing on the findings not only of ethnography and anthropology but also of sociology and musicology and offering new results for these disciplines. The researcher strives for a multidisciplinary approach and methodological diversity, focusing on questions which have not yet been studied or only to a very limited extent. The theme examined: how youth create their own culture and the micro world of their own group cultures based on music. She examines the values that prevail and the extent to which groups are distinct from each other and the previous generation. Both members of the age group and specialists dealing with youth (DJ, youth organiser) are interviewed. In contrast with the notion of “subculture” widely used in the social sciences, the author examines youth culture as group cultures equal in value, existing side by side and in the same time frame. The age group surveyed comprised 500 third- and fourth-year secondary school students. Research methods: interviews, representative questionnaires; on-the-spot observations. Group cultures analysed: rocker, alternative, punk, skinhead, rapper, disco, raver, house. Structure: short outline of music and social history, presentation of the groups concerned, typological comparisons.
Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) descend from wolves (Canis lupus) sharing the same ecological niche of cooperative hunters, as humans. Initially, humans and wolves were competitors starting interspecific communication in order to avoid risk of injury. The evolutionary continuity of mammalian brains enabled interspecific prosocial contacts between both of them, which reduced stress, and enabled behavioral cultures leading to genetic isolation of those wolves. Dogs are the first domesticated animal living together with humans for about 25,000 years. Domestication means decreased aggression and flight distance toward humans, thus changes in the stress axis are crucial. The hypothesis of Active Social Domestication considers genetic selection as a necessary prediction but not a sufficient explanation of dog domestication. In addition, dog domestication is suggested to be an epigenetic disclosure. Due to changed stress activity, epigenetic mechanisms affect cerebral receptor activity and regulate transposon expressions, thus shaping brain function and behavior. Interspecific prosocial contacts initiated via serotonin release an enzymatic cascade enhancing, epigenetically, the glucocorticoid negative feedback loop. Reduced chronic stress improved social learning capability and inhibitory control. Over time, those wolves could integrate themselves into human social structures, thus becoming dogs. In analogy, human mental skills, such as creating art and culture, might have also improved during the Upper Paleolithic.
Culture has remained stable
It has often been demonstrated that different academic disciplines have different citation practices. Indeed, there are even statistical differences in citing characteristics between
Authors:Masoumeh Dorri Giv, Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani, Majid Alizadeh, Ali Valinejadi, and Hesamedin Askari Majdabadi
, 6 ].
In various parts of the world, the allowable noise has been defined at two levels. The first level is standards determined for various types of environment with different users and it depends naturally on kind of behavior, culture, and other factors
-Cremer, 2016b , p. 373) Cultural attributes are one way of explaining behaviour. Culture is often used as a static category in the process of culturalization. When the mentors observe that the parents have difficulties in dealing with school matters they tend
acquired what you needed and switched immediately, and then never wore the old ones” (Kazár).
Clothing style also required a certain kind of behavioralculture. Smoking, makeup, cycling, and other urban behaviors were alien to costume wearers, and could