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; Krese et al., 2018 ). As seen in Fig. 1 , three products are obtained from pyrolysis; bio-oil (condensable volatile, liquid product), bio-char (carbonaceous residue, solid product), and bio-gas products (non-condensable). The first product can be

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In this study, compositional analysis of the products obtained by thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse at various pyrolysis temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 °C) and heating rate (5, 10, 20 and 50 °C/min) was studied. Sugar cane bagasse was pyrolyzed in a stainless steel tubular reactor. The aim of this work was to experimentally investigate how the temperature and heating rate affects liquid and char product yields via pyrolysis and to determine optimal condition to have a better yield of these products. Liquid product (bio-oil) obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, C-NMR and HNMR. In addition, column chromatography was employed to determine the aliphatic fraction (Hexane Eluate); gas chromatography and FT-IR were achieved on aliphatic fractions. For char product (bio-char), the elemental chemical composition and yield of the char were determined. The results of our work showed that the amount of liquid product (bio-oil) from pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse increases with increasing the final temperature and decreases with increasing the heating rate. The highest yield of liquid product is obtained from the samples at 550 °C and at the heating rate of 5°C/min, the maximal average yield achieved almost 32.80 wt%. The yield of char generally decreases with increasing the temperature, the char yield passes from 39.7 wt% to 21 wt% at the heating rate of 5°C/min and from 32 wt% to 17.2 wt% at the heating rate of 50 °C/min at the same range of temperature (300–800 °C). The analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of an aliphatic character and that it is possible to obtain liquid products similar to petroleum from sugar cane bagasse waste. The solid products (bio-char) obtained in the presence of nitrogen (N2) contain a very important percentage of carbon and high higher heating values (HHV).

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wastes have attracted a lot of scientists, which the aim to produce biofuels (bio-oil, bio-char and gas products) from several and different types of agricultural biomass waste ( Guida et al., 2020 ; Meshitsuka and Isogai, 1996 ; Worasuwannarak et al

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( 6 ): 3639 – 3646 . Chaiwong , K. , Kiatsiriroat , T. ( 2015 ) Characterizations of bio-oil and bio-char products from algae with slow and fast pyrolysis . Int. J. Environ

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. Dugan , E. , A. Verhoef , S. Robinson , Sohi , S. 2010 . Bio-Char from Sawdust, Maize Stover and Charcoal: Impact on Water Holding Capacities of Three Soils from Ghana . 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil

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. Demirbas . Effects of temperature and particle size on bio-char yield from pyrolysis of agricultural residues . Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 72 ( 2004 ) 243 – 251 . [46

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Miklós Gulyás
,
Márta Fuchs
,
Gabriella Rétháti
,
Annamária Holes
,
Zsolt Varga
,
István Kocsis
, and
György Füleky

5. 381 387 Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J. & Rondon, M. , 2006. Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems — a review. Mitigation and

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Péter Ragályi
,
Botond Bernhardt
,
Márk Rékási
,
Eszter Draskovits
,
Sándor Molnár
,
Mónika Molnár
,
József Kutasi
, and
Nikolett Uzinger

. Rondón , M.A. , Lehmann , J. , Ramírez , J. & Hurtado , M. , 2007 . Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions . Biology and Fertility of Soils . 43 . 699 – 708

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
N. Anter
,
M. Y. Guida
,
M. Kasbaji
,
A. Chennani
,
A. Medaghri-Alaoui
,
E. M. Rakib
, and
A. Hannioui

, gasification and combustion, present a good alternative that can be used to valorize lignocellulosic woody biomass into bio-oils, bio-chars and fuels gas products ( Khan et al., 2020 ; Minkova et al., 2001 ; Uzun et al., 2007 ). The pyrolysis technology is

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AUNT , J. & R ONDON , M. , 2006 . Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems — a review . Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change . 11 . 403 – 427 . L

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