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Abstract  

Three bio-fuels with or without additives and their fly ash samples were characterized using simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry (TG-DTA-FTIR-MS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The results show that the additives increase the reactivity of the bio-fuel during combustion. The additives also significantly decrease the amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash. The additives affect the compounds formed in the fly ash sample, and consequently the thermal behaviour of the fly ash. The fly ash samples are thermally stable in air up to 100C. The fly ash samples contain fine particles with irregular shape, small round particles, and large hollow spherical particles with entrapped gases.

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Bereczky Á., Damjanovits V., Urbán M. Investigation of bio fuels in IC-engines, Proceedongs of Sixth Conference on Mechanical Engineering , Budapest, Hungary, 29–30 May 2008, pp. 1–9. Meggyes A., Nagy V. Effect of the

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Concerns about climate change and fossil fuel shortages are encouraging interest in stumps, as alternative energy sources. Stumps are an almost unused resource in the context of bio fuels. Stump harvesting signifies an intensification of forest management compared with conventional stem-only or above-ground biomass-only harvesting. There are many benefits of stump harvesting. These include: the production of wood fuel, fossil fuel substitution, and improved soil preparation.Removing tree trunks in Hungary has been going on according to the principle of stump extraction, which means stumps are removed by grabbing technology. Experiments have been carried out to reduce the extraction force. In the Great Hungarian Lowland, where large areas require the operation implementation, stump extraction is done by special, hydraulic driven baggers equipped with a special bucket. During operation of the equipment, we carried out measurements of the extraction force and the time requirement. The experiments are designed to carry out the measurements with different soils and different tree species. According to our proposal the suitable force and torque required to remove stumps can be significantly reduced if before the lifting the soil — root connection is loosened. One of the possible ways to implement this task is the use of vibration. Since relatively great vibration power and wide domain of frequency are necessary, therefore we prepared the loosening machinery elements of alternating-current hydraulics system. Based on constructions variants we created a tractor-mounted experimental alternating-current hydraulic stump-loosening machine. It was designed with the ability to produce horizontal vibration in order to loosen stumps.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Balázs Lemmer, Szabolcs Kertész, Gábor Keszthelyi-Szabó, Kerime Özel, and Cecilia Hodúr

References Balat , M. ( 2007 ) Global bio-fuel processing and production trends . Energy Exploration & Exploitation , 25 ( 3 ): 195 – 218

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potential as a feedstock for bio-fuel . International Center for Tropical Agriculture. Retrieved July 19, 2013, from http://www.mtec.or.th/images/Howeler.pdf J OHNVESLY , B. , M ANJUNATH

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): “A bioüzemanyag-gyártás nemzetközi összefüggései” [International Implications of Producing Bio-fuels]. AKI Agrárgazdasági Tanulmányok , 2007/6. Reardon, T. — Timmer, C. P. — Barrett, C. — Berdegue, J. (2003

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9 , 493 – 499 ( 2016 ) 62. Osman ME , Khattab OH , Hammad IA , EI-Hussieny NI : Optimization of bio-fuel production by Saccharomyces

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. Ferrera-Lorenzo , N. , Fuente , E. , Bermúdez , J. M. , Suárez-Ruiz , I. , Ruiz , B. ( 2014 a) Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar– Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production . Bioresource Technology

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: María Villanueva, Jorge Proupín, José A. Rodríguez-Añón, L. Fraga-Grueiro, Josefa Salgado, and Nieves Barros

, DEG , Nunez , GF , Charland , JP , Dionne , S . Characterization of bio-fuel and bio-fuel ash . J Therm Anal Calorim 2004 78 : 173 – 184 10.1023/B:JTAN.0000042165.41923.c5 . 21

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biomass supplying for bio-fuel production and food production have been intensified over the last few years, and it highlighted a huge potential and necessity of inedible biomass resources to produce bioenergy, such as Miscanthus , switchgrass ( Panicum

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