; Krese et al., 2018 ). As seen in Fig. 1 , three products are obtained from pyrolysis; bio-oil (condensable volatile, liquid product), bio-char (carbonaceous residue, solid product), and bio-gas products (non-condensable). The first product can be
Since the shortages of petroleum resources dating from the global energy crisis in the 1970s, considerable attention has been focused on the development of alternative fuels. Bio-oil is a liquid fuel produced by
In this study, compositional analysis of the products obtained by thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse at various pyrolysis temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 °C) and heating rate (5, 10, 20 and 50 °C/min) was studied. Sugar cane bagasse was pyrolyzed in a stainless steel tubular reactor. The aim of this work was to experimentally investigate how the temperature and heating rate affects liquid and char product yields via pyrolysis and to determine optimal condition to have a better yield of these products. Liquid product (bio-oil) obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, C-NMR and HNMR. In addition, column chromatography was employed to determine the aliphatic fraction (Hexane Eluate); gas chromatography and FT-IR were achieved on aliphatic fractions. For char product (bio-char), the elemental chemical composition and yield of the char were determined. The results of our work showed that the amount of liquid product (bio-oil) from pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse increases with increasing the final temperature and decreases with increasing the heating rate. The highest yield of liquid product is obtained from the samples at 550 °C and at the heating rate of 5°C/min, the maximal average yield achieved almost 32.80 wt%. The yield of char generally decreases with increasing the temperature, the char yield passes from 39.7 wt% to 21 wt% at the heating rate of 5°C/min and from 32 wt% to 17.2 wt% at the heating rate of 50 °C/min at the same range of temperature (300–800 °C). The analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of an aliphatic character and that it is possible to obtain liquid products similar to petroleum from sugar cane bagasse waste. The solid products (bio-char) obtained in the presence of nitrogen (N2) contain a very important percentage of carbon and high higher heating values (HHV).
Bio-oil is produced by biomass pyrolysis. It contains hundreds of chemical compounds including alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ethers, ketones, aldehydes, acids, alcohols, and phenols. Phenols are compounds of increasing interest; they can be used as feedstock in many industrial applications such as the production of fuel additives, chemical synthesis, or as food antioxidants. Therefore, the valorization of phenols stemming from bio-oil can be an appropriated alternative to reduce the dependence on petro-based phenols in the chemical industry. The most important phenols in biooil from agricultural wastes are phenol, guaiacol, cresols, syringol, and xylenol. These compounds were separated by silica gel column chromatography technique, using 3 different solvents: a dichloromethane—acetone mixture, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Column elution was followed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Phenolic fraction was obtained and not individual phenols. This fraction was analyzed using gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC—FID) and gas chromatography—gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC—MS) with a DB-1701 column, and it was quantified using the relative response factor. Dichloromethane—acetone mixture was the best eluent to obtain this phenolic fraction, specifically during the first three elution steps.
wastes have attracted a lot of scientists, which the aim to produce biofuels (bio-oil, bio-char and gas products) from several and different types of agricultural biomass waste ( Guida et al., 2020 ; Meshitsuka and Isogai, 1996 ; Worasuwannarak et al
Thermogravimetry has been widely used for the characterization of several biomasses but the most useful information given
by this technique has been normally concerned to the relative amounts of humidity, hemi-cellulose, cellulose and lignin present
in the biomass. TG-FTIR has been used to yield qualitative data about the pyrolysis products, in an exploratory way, by some
authors. In the present paper, this technique was employed to reach comparative data about the products of pyrolysis of biomasses
that are potentially available at economic bases for the production of biofuels. Agricultural residues such as coconut shell,
sugarcane bagasse, corn stalks and peanut shell were chosen to be investigated. For all samples, the thermogravimetric curves
showed a mass loss between 35 and 400 °C changed up to 73%, while that the loss between 400 and 800 °C changed up to 26%.
TG-FTIR indicated tendencies in the rate of the formation of important species during the pyrolysis process of the four biomasses
studied. The interpretation of the spectra allowed the proposition of characteristic absorbance ratios and the comparison
of these values allowed inferences about the relative abundances of components formed in the pyrolysis of the biomasses. As
an example of the possible inferences reached, among the species formed in the pyrolysis condensate, called bio-oil, the formation
of carboxylic acids has to be specially considered due to their corrosivity. Thus, the data produced indicated that a bio-oil
derived from peanut shell should be a little less acidic while the one derived from sugarcane bagasse should be showed more
acidic among the biomasses studied.
With the increase of energy demand and the decline of crude oil resources, bio-oil, derived from biomass pyrolysis, was considered as the only practical source of renewable liquid fuel because biomass is renewable