Labour and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the effect of magnetic field treated water on germination, growth and physiological and biochemical changes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.). The results indicated that magnetic field treated water increased seed germination percentage, seed germination value and seedling vigour index. Magnetic field treated water increased also plant height, leaf area per plant, specific leaf area (SLA), leaf relative water content (LRWC), whereas the leaf water deficit (LWD) values were decreased. Biochemical analysis of the plant leaves irrigated by magnetic field treated water clarified changes in the photosynthetic pigments, UV-absorbing substances (UVAS), activities of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes, carbohydrates, phenolics and mineral ion contents. The latter changes are associated with the modifications in the membrane integrity of the plant leaves and the concentrations of some endogenous hormones in the plant shoots.
Authors:J. Kerrigan, C. Ragunath, Lili Kandra, GYöngyi Gyémánt, A. Lipták, L. Jánossy, J. Kaplan, and N. Ramasubbu
Bacteria in a biofilm are enmeshed in a self-synthesized extracellular polysaccharide matrix (PGA), which is a linear polymer of β(1,6)-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues. Dispersin B (DspB), a soluble glycoside hydrolase produced by the periodontal pathogen
degrades PGA. The enzyme DspB is an α/β TIM-barrel protein and belongs to family 20 glycosyl hydrolases members. The enzyme activity of DspB with regard to its substrate specificity towards β(1,6)-linked GlcNAc polymers and its endo/exo character was investigated through ligand docking and the hydrolysis of synthetic oligosaccharides. Ligand docking analysis suggested that β(1,6)-linked GlcNAc oligosaccharide bound to the active site better that β(1,4)-linked GlcNAc oligosaccharide. Our combined results indicate that DspB is an exo-acting enzyme that hydrolyzes β(1,6)-linked N-acetylglucosamine oligomers.
The main criterion that determines the quality of durum wheat is the degree of suitability for pasta production (pasta-processing quality). In this regard, pigment content and the quantity of oxidative enzymes of durum wheat play important roles in the quality of pasta. It is now possible to examine these features and specify their effects using recently developed genetic markers and spectrophotometric measurement techniques. In the present study, LOX enzyme activity and pigment content are determined using molecular and biochemical scanning. According to the obtained results, Gediz-75, Gdem-12, Line-19, Zenit, Line-7 and Line-20 were determined as the most suitable lines or varieties for the production of quality pasta with regard to LOX enzyme activity. As for pigment content, Kyle, Zenit, Gdem-12, Gdem-2, TMB-1 and TMB-3 showed the highest potential for the production of yellow pasta. When pigment content and LOX enzyme activity were evaluated together, the potential of the Gediz-75, Gdem-12 and Zenit durum wheat varieties and lines to produce yellow pasta products was shown to be very high.
Authors:M.A. Elfattah, R.M. Elsanhoty, M.F. Ramadan, and M.O. Osman
The main objective of this work was to evaluate the composition, nutritional, physical and rheological properties of wheat flour and dough from genetically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Hi-Line 111 (GMW) compared to conventional wheat (non-GMW). Analyses were conducted to measure the proximate chemical composition with references to 18 components including total solid, protein, lipids, crude fiber, ash, carbohydrate, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids. In addition, physical and rheological properties such as water absorption, arrival time, dough development time, stability value, dough weakening value, extensibility of dough, resistance to extension, and ratio of resistance/extensibility were evaluated. The results showed that there were no significant differences between GMW and non-GMW in terms of chemical composition. Results revealed the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids wherein there were no significant differences between GMW and its counterpart in the levels of fatty acids. In addition, there were no significant differences on the levels of amino acids. In addition, there were no significant differences between the GMW and non-GMW in the physical and rheological properties. From these results, it can be concluded that GMW Hi-Line 111 is confirmed to have nearly the composition and rheological properties as non-GMW.
Authors:Anja Strobl, Frank Künzel, Alexander Tichy, and Michael Leschnik
before any treatment. The CBC was performed using the haematology analyser Advia® 2120i, while biochemicalanalysis was performed using the mid-volume analyser Cobas® c501. A blood smear, stained with Diff-Quick, was done in all dogs to establish the
Authors:D. Nayak, M. Nag, S. Banerjee, R. Pal, S. Laskar, and S. Lahiri
bioaccumulation of 198Au radionuclide, by Rhizocloniumriparium
a member of Chlorophyceae has been studied. It has been observed that
accumulation of gold on Rhizoclonium is almost pH independent and
slightly higher at basic pH. Accumulation of gold was studied with 198Au
radiotracer, 0.1, 1 and 5 ppm concentrations of gold. It has been concluded
from the biochemical analysis that the gold accumulation is due to adsorption
in the cellulose and not in protein, fat and carbohydrate. Accumulated gold was
recovered when washed with conc. HNO3.
Authors:J. Kavapurayil, S. Karalam, and R. Chandran
Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by bees from the nectar or secretions of plants or from excretions of plant-sucking insects, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store, and leave in honeycombs to ripen and mature. The physical properties of honey make it versatile and applicable to several industries. High consumer demand for honey consequently leads to widespread adulteration. In the present study, fifteen honey samples were collected from various parts of Kerala, India and classified into three categories: market samples, raw/wild samples, and industrial samples. The samples were then analysed for the following parameters: organoleptic features, physicochemical properties, biochemical characteristics, and microbiological state. The values obtained for physicochemical and biochemical analysis were compared to Standard values provided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. It was found that no honey ideally conformed to all parameter standards. Some samples clearly indicated conditions of improper handling. All honey samples showed significant polyphenol content. Although honey samples showed increased microbial growth upon dilution, they were also found to have effective antimicrobial properties. Significant links between moisture content, yeast count, and non-conformity in honey were determined, which highlights the necessity of proper storage conditions.
Authors:Inmaculada Cuevas, Alfonso Carbonero, David Cano, Isabel L. Pacheco, Juan C. Marín, and Carmen Borge
This paper describes the first documented outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida type B in cattle in Spain. This acute, highly fatal septicaemia causes major economic losses in cattle and buffaloes in many areas of Asia and Africa. In other species and in European countries it is an infrequently reported disease. Acute septicaemic pasteurellosis occurred in a free-range farm of 150 cattle and 70 beef calves in Southern Spain. Twenty-one calves and one cow were affected, of which three calves and the adult cow died. Postmortem examination revealed characteristic oedema in the ventral area of the neck and the brisket region, and widespread haemorrhages in all organs. Pure cultures of P. multocida were obtained from all tissues and organs studied. The aetiological agent was further confirmed by molecular and biochemical analysis as P. multocida capsular type B, biovar 3. Although the source of infection could not be determined, wildlife may play an important role. The use of tulathromycin in the initial stage of the disease might be related to the low morbidity and mortality of this outbreak. After using an autogenous vaccine no more cases of HS were observed.