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concentrations in seeds of wild, primitive and modern wheats . Food Nutr. Bull. 21 : 401 – 403 . Cakmak , I. , Pfeiffer , W.H. , McClafferty , B. 2010 . Biofortification of

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács, Éva Domokos-Szabolcsy and Szilvia Veres

. Banuelos , G. S. , Arroyo , I. , Pickering , I. J. , Yang , S. I. , Freeman , J. L. ( 2015 ) Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator . Stanleya Pinnata. Food Chem. 166 , 603

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.V. , Pfeiffer , W. 2011 . Biofortification: A new tool to reduce micronutrient malnutrition . Food Nutr. Bull. 32 : S31 – S40 . Buckner , B. , Kelson , T.L. , Robertson , D

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Insights into the diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials are an important component in maize improvement programs. We genotyped 63 inbred lines bred for high levels of provitamin A using 137 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. A total of 272 alleles were detected with gene diversity of 0.36. Average genetic distance was 0.36 with 56% of the pairs of lines having between 0.30 and 0.40. Eighty-six percent of the pairs of lines showed relative kinship values <0.50, which indicated that the majority of these provitamin A inbred lines were unique. Relationship pattern and population structure analysis revealed presence of seven major groups with good agreement with Neighbour Joining clustering and somewhat correlated with pedigree and breeding origin. Utilization of this set of provitamin A lines in a new biofortification program will be aided by information from both molecular-based grouping and pedigree analysis. The results should guide breeders in selecting parents for hybrid formation and testing as a short-term objective, and parents with diverse alleles for new breeding starts as a long-term objective in a provitamin A breeding program.

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Abstract  

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health, but its deficiency may affect at least one billion people worldwide. Plants and plant-derived products transfer the soil-uptaken Se to humans through the food chain, which is hardly enough when soils have been always poor or already exhausted in bioavailable Se species. Other than agronomic approaches for enhancing Se levels in cereals, such as soil and foliar supplements, seed enrichment may be viewed as an alternative Se-biofortification technique. This study addresses the protocol for preparing Se-enriched wheat seeds, with the specific purpose of optimizing the administration of Se to the seeds prior to sowing. The first step was to soak an amount of bread-wheat seeds in an active Se solution, made with irradiated [Na2O4Se], and then monitoring 75Se in periodically-retrieved samples from that original amount. To avoid losing Se to soil (after sowing), and, especially, to ensure that Se gets really absorbed into the seeds—and not just adsorbed onto them—the washing time of the seeds should be optimized as well. This was carried out by washing Se-treated seeds several times, until no significant amount of the radiotracer could be detected in the washing water. In what concerns the full optimization procedure, the overall results of the present study point to an optimum time of 48 h for soaking and 24 h for washing.

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Grains of 12 accessions of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. ssp. timopheevii (AAGG, 2n = 4x = 28) and one bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) and one durum wheat cultivar Langdon (LDN) grown across two years were analyzed for grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. All the 12 tested T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii genotypes showed significantly higher concentration of grain Fe and Zn than CS and LDN. Aboundant genetic variability of both the Fe and Zn concentrations was observed among the T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii accessions, averagely varied from 47.06 to 90.26 mg kg−1 and from 30.05 to 65.91 mg kg−1, respectively. Their grain Fe and Zn concentrations between years exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the correlation coefficients r = 0.895 and r = 0.891, respectively, indicating the highly genetic stability. Flag leaf possessed twice or three times higher concentrations for both Fe and Zn than grain, and a significantly high positive correlation appeared between the two organs with r = 0.648 for Fe and r = 0.957 for Zn concentrations, respectively, suggesting flag leaves might be indirectly used for evaluating grain Zn and Fe contents. Significant correlations occurred between grain Fe and Zn concentrations, and between grain Zn concentration and the two agronomic traits of plant height and number of spikelets per spike. Both the concentrations were not related to seed size or weight as well as NAM-G1 gene, implying the higher grain Fe and Zn concentrations of T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species are not ascribed to concentration effects of seed and the genetic control of NAM-G1 gene. There might be some other biological factors impacting the grain’s Zn and Fe concentrations. These results indicated T. timopheevii ssp. timopheevii species might be a promising genetic resource with high Fe and Zn concentrations for the biofortification of current wheat cultivars.

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: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant and Soil 302 : 1–17. Cakmak I. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: R. Goswami, R.U. Zunjare, S. Khan, V. Muthusamy, A. Baveja, A.K. Das, S.K. Jaiswal, J.S. Bhat, S.K. Guleria and F. Hossain

Vitamin-A deficiency is a major health concern. Traditional yellow maize possesses low provitamin-A (proA). Mutant crtRB1 gene significantly enhances proA. 24 experimental hybrids possessing crtRB1 allele were evaluated for β-carotene (BC), β-cryptoxanthin (BCX), lutein (LUT), zeaxanthin (ZEA), total carotenoids (TC) and grain yield at multi-locations. BC (0.64–17.24 µg/g), BCX (0.45–6.84 µg/g), proA (0.86–20.46 µg/g), LUT (9.60–31.03 µg/g), ZEA (1.24–12.73 µg/g) and TC (20.60–64.02 µg/g) showed wide variation. No significant genotype × location interaction was observed for carotenoids. The mean BC (8.61 µg/g), BCX (4.04 µg/g) and proA (10.63 µg/g) in crtRB1-based hybrids was significantly higher than normal hybrids lacking crtRB1-favourable allele (BC: 1.73 µg/g, BCX: 1.29 µg/g and proA: 2.37 µg/g). Selected crtRB1-based hybrids possessed 33% BC and 40% BCX compared to 6% BC and 5% BCX in normal hybrids. BC showed positive correlation with BCX (r = 0.90), proA (r = 0.99) and TC (r = 0.64) among crtRB1-based hybrids. Carotenoids didn't show association with grain yield. Average yield potential of proA rich hybrids (6794 kg/ha) was at par with normal hybrids (6961 kg/ha). PROAH-13, PROAH-21, PROAH-17, PROAH-11, PROAH-23, PROAH-24 and PROAH-3 were the most promising with >12 µg/g proA and >6000 kg/ha grain yield. The newly identified crtRB1-based hybrids assume significance in alleviating malnutrition.

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Molecular markers provide novel tools for linkage mapping of QTLs of target traits and can greatly enhance the efficacy of breeding programs to improve mineral (iron and zinc) density in rice. A F2 population derived from the cross between high-yielding (PAU201) and iron-rich (Palman 579) indica rice varieties displayed large variation for various physio-morphological traits including grain yield per plant and iron and zinc contents. Transgressive segregation for grain iron and/or zinc contents was noticed in some F2 individuals with one of the F2 plants having exceptionally higher iron (475.4 μg/g) as well as zinc (157.4 μg/g) contents. Grain iron content showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.523) with grain zinc content indicating the feasibility of improving iron and zinc levels simultaneously in rice grain. Two parental rice varieties displayed polymorphism at 76 of the 100 SSR loci, which were used to map the QTLs associated with mineral content in grains. Composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis by Win QTL cartographer 2.5 revealed a total of eleven QTLs for mineral content (eight for Fe and three for Zn) in rice grains on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10 and 12.

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Environ. Geochem. Health 2009 31 537 548 Bouis, H.E., Welch, R.M. 2010. Biofortification: A

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