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. (2009) Tobacco as a production platform for biofuel: overexpression of Arabidopsis DGAT and LEC2 genes increases accumulation and shifts the composition of lipids in green biomass. Plant Biotechnol. J. 8 , 1

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– 907 . [59] M. Hoogwijk et al . Exploration of the ranges of the global potential of biomass for energy . Biomass

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Abstract  

Fears of climate change and increasing concern over the global warming have prompted a search for new, cleaner methods for electricity power generation. Technologies based on utilising biomass are attracting much attention because biomass is considered to be CO2 neutral. Co-firing of biomass fuels with coal, for example, is presently being considered as a mean for reducing the global CO2 emissions. Biomass is also applied in thermal conversion processes to produce fuels with higher calorific values and adsorbents. In any case, thermal decomposition is essential stage where volatiles and tars are evolved followed by consequent heats of reactions. In this work sawdust biomass samples were selected in order to study their thermal conversion behaviour. Heats of decomposition for each sample were measured during continuous heating at a prescribed heating rate under inert atmospheric conditions. The decomposition generally commenced in all samples at 150C and was completed at 460C in a series of endo and exothermic reactions influenced by its lignin and cellulosic content. Single biomass sample was subjected to heating rates ranging from 10 to 1000C min-1 and the effect of heating rate on decomposition was studied. The origin of reactions for each thermal sequence is herein discussed in detail.

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.L. 2006. Spectral reflectance to estimate genetic variation for in-season biomass, leaf chlorophyll, and canopy temperature in wheat. Crop Sci. 46 :1046–1057. Stone M.L. Spectral

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Due to the experimental errors, the chemical effect of minor reactions, and some physical effects of heat and mass transfer, there usually exists much noise in the mass loss data resulted from thermal decomposition experiments, and thus high quality smoothing algorithm plays an important role in obtaining reliable derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves required for differential kinetic analysis. In this paper three smoothing methods, i.e. Moving Average smoothing, Gaussian smoothing, and Vondrak smoothing, are investigated in detail for pre-treatment of biomass decomposition data to obtain the DTG curves, and the smoothing results are compared. It is concluded that by choosing reasonable smoothing parameters based on the spectrum analysis of the data, the Gaussian smoothing and Vondrak smoothing can be reliably used to obtain DTG curves. The kinetic parameters calculated from the original TG curves and smoothed DTG curves have excellent agreement, and thus the Gaussian and Vondrak smoothing algorithms can be used directly and accurately in kinetic analysis.

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The combined analytical methods of thermal analysis and mass spectrometry have been applied in form of a newly developed prototype of a thermogravimetry — single photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupling (TG-SPI-TOFMS) to investigate the molecular patterns of evolved gases from several biomass samples as well as a crude oil sample. Single photon ionization (SPI) was conducted by means of a novel electron beam pumped argon excimer lamp (EBEL) as photon source. With SPI-TOFMS various lignin decomposition products such as guaiacol, syringol and coniferyl alcohol could be monitored. Furthermore, SPI allows the detection of aliphatic hydrocarbons, mainly alkenes, carbonylic compounds such as acetone, and furan derivatives such as furfuryl alcohol and hydroxymethylfurfural. More alkaline biomass such as coarse colza meal show intense signals from nitrogen containing substances such as (iso-)propylamine and pyrrole. Thermal degradation of crude oil takes place in two steps, evaporation of volatile components and pyrolysis of larger molecular structures at higher temperatures. Due to the soft ionisation, homologue rows of alkanes and alkenes could be detected on basis of their molecular ions. The obtained information from the thermal analysis/photo ionisation mass spectrometry experiments can be drawn on in comparison to the investigation of the primary products from flash pyrolysis of biomass for production of biofuels and chemicals.

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Plain and N-doped carbonaceous particles are synthesized from biomass resources such as glucose via continuous hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process at 200 °C and 250 psi for the first time using a microfluidic system in a fast and continuous manner. The continuous HTC is controlled by reaction time (3.7–30 min) and concentration (0–10 wt.%) of ethylenediamine as a nitrogen additive to produce a series of the plain carbonaceous and N-doped carbonaceous particles with size range from 0.8 to 1.2 um. The as-synthesized and the pyrolyzed particles are characterized by various analytical instruments to understand their chemical structures with elemental compositions, morphology of particles, and thermal defunctionalization.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Waśko, Monika Kordowska-Wiater, M. Podleśny, Magdalena Polak-Berecka, Z. Targoński, and Agnieszka Kubik-Komar

The central composite design was developed to search for an optimal medium for the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus OXY. The effect of various media components, such as carbon sources, simple and complex nitrogen sources, mineral agents, and growth factors (vitamins B, amino acids) was examined. The first-order model based on Plackett-Burman design showed that glucose, sodium pyruvate, meat extract and mineral salts significantly influenced the growth of the examined bacteria. The second-order polynomial regression confirmed that maximum biomass production could be achieved by the combination of glucose (12.38 g/l), sodium pyruvate (3.15 g/l), meat extract (4.08 g/l), potassium phosphate (1.46 g/l), sodium acetate (3.65 g/l) and ammonium citrate (1.46 g/l).The validation of the predicted model carried out in bioreactor conditions confirmed the usefulness of the new medium for the culture of L. rhamnosus OXY in large scale. The optimal medium makes the culture of the probiotic bacterium L. rhamnosus OXY more cost effective.

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A biomassza előállításának és energetikai célú hasznosításának társadalmi hatásai a szakértők által leírtak alapján rendkívül pozitívnak mutatkoztak. Az elmúlt tíz év adatait alapul véve mindez nem jelenthető ki egyértelműen, tekintettel arra, hogy a statisztikai adatok elemzése bizonyos esetekben nem támasztja alá a korábbi tanulmányokban leírtakat.A biomassza energetikai célú hasznosítása ugyan képes munkahelyeket teremteni — a szántóföldeken, az erdőgazdálkodásban, a logisztikában, valamint az erőművekben — és emelni a térségek életszínvonalát, azonban az alacsony képzettségűek számára csak szezonális foglalkoztatást biztosít. Az előirányzott hatások megkérdőjelezhetőségét vetíti előre továbbá, hogy az elmúlt évek és napjaink migrációs adatait vizsgálva az idősorelemzés eredményei alapján sem történt érdemi változás.Összességében a biomassza társadalmi hatásai elmaradnak a várakozásoktól, aminek számos oka lehet; egyrészt a hatások hosszabb távon jelenthetnek pozitív változást, másrészt napjainkban túl optimisták a várakozások, továbbá globális és egyes regionális változók dominálják a biomassza társadalmi hatásait.

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