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Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Péter Ekler
and
Dániel Pásztor

Összefoglalás. A mesterséges intelligencia az elmúlt években hatalmas fejlődésen ment keresztül, melynek köszönhetően ma már rengeteg különböző szakterületen megtalálható valamilyen formában, rengeteg kutatás szerves részévé vált. Ez leginkább az egyre inkább fejlődő tanulóalgoritmusoknak, illetve a Big Data környezetnek köszönhető, mely óriási mennyiségű tanítóadatot képes szolgáltatni.

A cikk célja, hogy összefoglalja a technológia jelenlegi állapotát. Ismertetésre kerül a mesterséges intelligencia történelme, az alkalmazási területek egy nagyobb része, melyek központi eleme a mesterséges intelligencia. Ezek mellett rámutat a mesterséges intelligencia különböző biztonsági réseire, illetve a kiberbiztonság területén való felhasználhatóságra. A cikk a jelenlegi mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazások egy szeletét mutatja be, melyek jól illusztrálják a széles felhasználási területet.

Summary. In the past years artificial intelligence has seen several improvements, which drove its usage to grow in various different areas and became the focus of many researches. This can be attributed to improvements made in the learning algorithms and Big Data techniques, which can provide tremendous amount of training.

The goal of this paper is to summarize the current state of artificial intelligence. We present its history, introduce the terminology used, and show technological areas using artificial intelligence as a core part of their applications. The paper also introduces the security concerns related to artificial intelligence solutions but also highlights how the technology can be used to enhance security in different applications. Finally, we present future opportunities and possible improvements. The paper shows some general artificial intelligence applications that demonstrate the wide range usage of the technology.

Many applications are built around artificial intelligence technologies and there are many services that a developer can use to achieve intelligent behavior. The foundation of different approaches is a well-designed learning algorithm, while the key to every learning algorithm is the quality of the data set that is used during the learning phase. There are applications that focus on image processing like face detection or other gesture detection to identify a person. Other solutions compare signatures while others are for object or plate number detection (for example the automatic parking system of an office building). Artificial intelligence and accurate data handling can be also used for anomaly detection in a real time system. For example, there are ongoing researches for anomaly detection at the ZalaZone autonomous car test field based on the collected sensor data. There are also more general applications like user profiling and automatic content recommendation by using behavior analysis techniques.

However, the artificial intelligence technology also has security risks needed to be eliminated before applying an application publicly. One concern is the generation of fake contents. These must be detected with other algorithms that focus on small but noticeable differences. It is also essential to protect the data which is used by the learning algorithm and protect the logic flow of the solution. Network security can help to protect these applications.

Artificial intelligence can also help strengthen the security of a solution as it is able to detect network anomalies and signs of a security issue. Therefore, the technology is widely used in IT security to prevent different type of attacks.

As different BigData technologies, computational power, and storage capacity increase over time, there is space for improved artificial intelligence solution that can learn from large and real time data sets. The advancements in sensors can also help to give more precise data for different solutions. Finally, advanced natural language processing can help with communication between humans and computer based solutions.

Open access

A vállalati biztonsági háló meghatározó tényezői

Determining factors of the corporate safety-net

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Ágnes Kemendi

Összefoglalás.

A ma vállalata dinamikusan változó üzleti és kockázati környezetben működik, behálózzák az információs és kommunikációs technológiák. Mindez a biztonság területén is felkészültséget igényel. A sikeres vállalati működés fontos pillére a kívánt biztonsági szint megteremtése és fenntartása. Jelen tanulmány szakértői kutatás eredményeit tartalmazza, és a megalapozott elmélet módszertana alapján készült. A kutatás a nyereségorientált vállalatok szemszögéből vizsgálja a biztonság kérdéskörét, javaslatokat tesz, eszközöket mutat ebben a dinamikus és innovatív környezetben a biztonsági kérdések kezelésére, és azonosítja a vállalatot behálózó belső kontrollrendszer, az ún. vállalati biztonsági háló meghatározó tényezőit. A kutatás lényeges megállapítása, hogy a vállalati biztonsági háló kulcseleme a vezetői elkötelezettség.

Summary.

A company of these days operates in a dynamically changing business- and risk environment, surrounded by information and communication technologies; all this calls for thorough grounding in the field of security. This study contains the results of expert research and was prepared based on the methodology of grounded theory. The research examines the matter of security from the perspective of profit-oriented companies; makes suggestions and shows tools on how to ensure the smooth handling of security matters in this dynamic and innovative environment, and furthermore identifies what is the determining factor in the digital age behind the operation of the internal control system that encompasses the company, the so-called corporate safety-net. Security represents value for companies, its economic benefit must be shown to decision-makers. Resiliency is important from business and security perspective as well.

The safe operation of business processes requires the appropriate management of related risks, i.e., controlled processes, tools, or appropriate management of human risks are necessary. A network-like relationship can be identified between the key factors of corporate security. Safe operation requires safety-conscious, and rule-following behaviour of the human factors. Staying up-to-date in the digital era requires both up-to-date digital technology solutions and up-to-date users and developers of the solutions. This can be ensured through continuous learning and development. The security aspects of digital transformation projects should be diligently managed from the very beginning of the development process of the digital solution, as well as people should accept and support the changes. The design and operational testing of controls are the keys to ensure safe operation later on.

The key finding of the research is that the key element of the corporate safety-net is top management commitment that is the most important factor determining a company’s safety culture and corporate security.

Open access
Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Mónika Lakatos
,
Zita Bihari
,
Beatrix Izsák
, and
Olivér Szentes

Összefoglaló. A WMO 2021 elején kiadott állapotértékelője szerint a COVID–19 miatti korlátozások ellenére az üvegházhatású gázok légköri koncentrációja tovább emelkedett. A tengerszint emelkedés a közelmúltban gyorsult, rekordmagas volt a jégvesztés Grönlandon, az Antarktisz olvadása is gyorsulni látszik. Szélsőséges időjárás pusztított, élelmiszer-ellátási gondok léptek fel, és 2020-ban a COVID–19 hatásával együtt nőtt a biztonsági kockázat több régióban is. Az éghajlatváltozás felerősíti a meglévő kockázatokat, és újabb kockázatok is fellépnek majd a természeti és az ember által alkotott rendszerekben.

Az éghajlatváltozás hatása a hazai mérési sorokban is megjelenik. Az Országos Meteorológiai Szolgálat (OMSZ) homogenizált, ellenőrzött mérései szerint 1901 óta 1,2 °C-ot nőtt az évi középhőmérséklet. Két normál időszakot vizsgálva egyértelmű a magasabb hőmérsékletek felé tolódás, a csapadék éven belüli eloszlása megváltozott, az őszi másodmaximum eltűnőben van. Nőtt az aszályhajlam, gyakoribbá váltak a hőhullámok, intenzívebb a csapadékhullás, emiatt az éghajlatvédelemi intézkedések mellett a jól megalapozott alkalmazkodás is indokolt. A biztonsági kockázatok csökkenthetők az OMSZ és Országos Katasztrófavédelmi Főigazgatóság közötti együttműködés által.

Summary. The first part of the article gives an overview of the state of the global climate in 2020 based on the report compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO, 2021) and network of partners from UN. According to this report, the 2020 was one of the three warmest years on record, despite a cooling La Niña event. The global mean temperature for 2020 (January to October) was 1.2 ± 0.1 °C above the 1850–1900 baseline, used as an approximation of pre-industrial levels. The latest six years have been the warmest on record. 2011-2020 was the warmest decade on record. The report on the “State of the Global Climate 2020” illustrates the state of the key indicators of the climate system, including greenhouse gas concentrations, increasing land and ocean temperatures, sea level rise, melting ice and glacier and extreme weather. It also highlights impacts on socio-economic development, migration and displacement and food security. All key climate indicators and associated impact information published in this report highlight continuing climate change, an increasing occurrence and intensification of extreme events, and severe losses and damage, affecting people, societies and economies. Extreme weather events triggered an estimated 10 000 000 displacements in 2020. Because of COVID-19 lockdowns, response and recovery operations were leading to delays in providing assistance. After decades of decline, the increase in food insecurity since 2014 is being driven by conflict and economic slowdown as well as climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change will amplify existing risks and create new risks for natural and human systems. Risks are unevenly distributed and are generally greater for disadvantaged people and communities in countries at all levels of development.

The global changes have local effects in Hungary as it is shown in the second part of the article. The climate monitoring at the Hungarian Meteorological Service is based on measurements stored in the Climate data archive. We apply data management tools to produce high quality and representative datasets to prepare climate studies. The data homogenization makes possible to eliminate inhomogeneities due to change in the measuring practice and station movements. Applying spatial interpolation procedure for meteorological data provide the spatial representativeness of the climate data used for monitoring. The surface temperature increase is slightly higher in Hungary than the global change from 1901. The annual precipitation decreased by 3% from 1901, although this change is not significant statistically. The monthly temperatures shifted to warmer monthly averages in the most recent normal period between 1991 and 2020 comparing to the 1961–1990 in each months. The annual course of the monthly precipitations changed, especially autumn. The monthly sum in September and in October increased substantially. The frequency of heatwave days increased by more than two weeks in the Little Plain and in the southern part of the Great Hungarian Plain from 1981, which is the most intense warming period globally. The intensification of the precipitation in the recent years is obvious in our region. The cooperation of the Disaster Risk Management and the Hungarian Meteorological Service could expand the adaptive capacity of the society to climate change.

Open access