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The paper puts forward a new interpretation of the problematic word btol that is sparsely attested in Old Tibetan sources. The philological analysis is supported by a lexicological survey of potential cognates; taken together these allow us to sketch the word family of btol, and thus to better understand the underlying semantics of the word. It is argued that the term denoted a rite within a funeral ceremony; to be specific, the rite of exposure of the deceased’s body before it was interred. In order to contextualise the rite and to assess its cultural significance, this paper also discusses certain funeral customs of later periods.

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Samples of orange, yellow, beige, ivory and blue-green ceramic dinnerware glazed with uranium compounds have been examined. Measurements at glaze surfaces yielded exposure rates of 3.8–16 mR/h (1–4 μC/kgh) for orange glazes and rates of 0.04–1.3 mR/h (0.01–0.3 μC/kgh) for ivory beige, and yellow glazes. Whole body exposure from a shelf display of 40 orange dishes was estimated to be 0.1–0.5 mR/h (0.03–0.13 μC/kgh), or up to 50 times the room background radiation level, at a distance of 1 meter. Twenty-four hour leaching tests of orange, yellow, and ivory dishes were carried out with various concentrations of acetic and citric acids. Uranium concentrations in leachates of some orange dishes exceeded 450 mg/l. Uranium is a chemical nephrotoxin and the United States Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a maximum contaminant level for drinking water of 0.020 mg/l. Based on this value a person consuming, 2.2 l of drinking water per day would ingest 0.31 mg of uranium per week. A person eating once a week from an orange glazed dish could easily ingest 10 or more times this amount.

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for 2-h session/day for five days week −1 , using whole body exposure apparatus. 2.5.2 Tobacco products used for exposure LD blue cigarettes cruise (Liggett Ducat, 0.6 mg of nicotine, 0.8 mg of tar, and 0.01 mg of carbon monoxide), and Two

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Karim Ghazikhanlou-Sani
Azizollah Rahimi
Maryam Poorkaveh
Samira Eynali
Fereshteh Koosha
, and
Mohsen Shoja

, Bucher J : Report of partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis studies of cell phone radiofrequency radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure) . bioRxiv ( 2016

Open access