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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Linda Müller
,
Eszter Kollár
,
Lajos Balogh
,
Zita Pöstényi
,
Teréz Márián
,
Ildikó Garai
,
László Balkay
,
György Trencsényi
, and
Julianna Thuróczy

The relationship between metabolic disorders and the distribution of fat in different body regions is not clearly understood in humans. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable method for assessing the regional distribution of fat deposits and their metabolic effects in dogs. Twenty-five dogs were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) imaging and blood sampling in order to characterise their metabolic status. The different fat areas were measured on a cross-sectional scan, and the animals’ metabolic status was evaluated by measuring fasting glucose, insulin and leptin levels. The volume of visceral adipose tissue is the main determinant of leptin levels. The correlation of visceral fat volume and leptin concentration was found to be independent of insulin levels or the degree of insulin resistance. There was a positive correlation between the visceral to subcutaneous fat volume ratio and serum insulin concentration, and a similar trend was observed in the relationship of fat ratio and insulin resistance. The distribution of body fat essentially influences the metabolic parameters in dogs, but the effects of adiposity differ between humans and dogs. The findings can facilitate a possible extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans with regard to the metabolic consequences of different obesity types.

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Az evészavarok patomorfózisa gyors, közöttük az utóbbi két évtizedben új altípusok, majd új betegségtípusok jelentek meg (például az izomdiszmorfia, az orthorexia nervosa). Ennek a jelenségnek a hátterében a szociokulturális tényezők szerepe valószínű. Gruber és Pope 2000-ben írt le egy új evészavart, amelyet testépítő típusú evészavarnak neveztek el. Ennek legfontosabb tünete a magas testzsírtartalomtól való kényszeres félelem (testzsírfóbia), ami intenzív testépítéssel és speciális étrenddel társul. A jelen dolgozat az új kórkép első hazai esetismertetése egy 16 éves testépítő férfi pszichoterápiájának bemutatásával. A zavar anorexiával kezdődött, majd internetfüggőséggel szövődött. A tartós remissziót féléves utánkövetés erősítette meg. A kórképet az izomdiszmorfiától az különbözteti meg, hogy nem a test izomzatának fejlesztése az elsődleges cél, hanem a zsírarány csökkentése. Az új keletű zavar felhívja a figyelmet arra, hogy egyre gyakrabban találkozhatunk a testtel való elégedetlenség különböző formáival, amelyek kóros méreteket ölthetnek.

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The prevalence of overweight or fat children and adolescents has markedly increased in Hungary during the past three decades. Among the possible factors insufficient physical activity and a relative or absolute excess of calorie intake associated to it can be regarded as the most important ones. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise on body composition and on the exercise tested cardio-respiratory functions in 10-year-old obese boys. Obesity was defined by a BMI greater than the cut-off value reported by Cole and co-workers (5) and a relative body fat content above 30% (13). Of the study group 21 volunteer children completed the program; the contrast group contained 28 obese boys. Mean calendar age was 10.03±0.26 in the study group (S) and 9.88±0.29 in the control group (C). The members of group S had two curricular physical education (PE) classes a week and three extracurricular aerobic physical activity sessions of 60 min net time in the afternoon, on Mondays (swimming and water games), Wednesdays (folk dance) and Fridays (soccer). Group C had only 2 PE classes a week. Anthropometric and spiroergometric data were collected in the middle of January and June of 2004. Relative body fat content and BMI did not increase during the observation period in contrast to the significant increase of both in the control group. Peak minute ventilation, aerobic power, oxygen pulse, and running distance (performed on a treadmill) increased in group S, and did not change in group C.The program was considered successful despite that the changes in the observed physiological and physical indicators appeared to be slight. However, the 5-month elevated level of physical activity brought about such development in the physical status of the obese subjects that might be an appropriate basis for regular training. Fortunately, the cardio-respiratory functions of the investigated boys were not affected yet by obesity, consequently the really dramatic change in their further lifestyle exclusively depends on their decision.

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Abstract  

The feasibility of measuring total body carbon (TBC) based on prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) of the human body was examined. Preliminary analyzes for 33 healthy pre-menopausal women indicated a range of TBC values (7.1±4.4 kg) which translated to 17.1±6.5 kg body fat (27.9%±7.9% of body weight). An advantage of the PGAA measurement is that fat mass can be obtained simultaneous with that of total body protein mass, both indices serving as useful body composition markers of the nutritional status.

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Long-range repeated-measure sample differences in body dimensions, body composition and physical performance help to describe the changes in a population’s lifestyle. The aim of our study was to analyse such changes in longitudinal studies repeated after a 25-year interval. Data collections repeated every six months for the periods 1977–1981 (n=152) and 2002–2006 (n=158) were carried out in nonathletic boys aged between 6.51 and 11.50 years from the same districts of Budapest. Means for height, body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, and distance covered during a running endurance test, as well as the slopes of the changes were compared. The children of the second series of studies were significantly taller and heavier, had more depot fat and showed poorer cardio-respiratory endurance than their peers 25 years before. The increases with age in weight, BMI and depot fat were steeper in the second series. The significant differences that developed in anthropometric traits and physical performance during these 25 years are regarded as indirect evidence for how severely the average physical condition had declined, as well as how health risks of the schoolchildren had increased.

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The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of meal replacement diets in body weight management and the impact on the body composition of working age people, when the participants purchased the products and followed the weight loss program outside the clinical trial.In weight loss programs (3.98±2.29 months), 79 participants (56 women, 23 men) lost an average of 10.19±6.1 kg of their body weight, 11.47±9.15 cm in the waist circumference, and 5.29±5.46 of the percentage of body fat. Replacing two meals a day was an effective way to loose weight because of its simplicity and convenience of use. The cost of the products and the monotony of the diet were the main causes of abandoning the diet. After the diet subjects were followed for an average of 11.28±8.1 months, and for the entire group of participants an average weight gain of 2.86±3.02 kg was observed compared to the minimum weight (31.5% of weight lost). Long-term maintenance was better in the subjects that replaced one meal a day, but is still a challenge and required further research.

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The purpose of this study was to assess anthropometrical, somatomotor, and cardio respiratory characteristics of athletes and non-athletes subjects to establish which effects of the organized physical training discriminate well between them. Subjects were 61 athlete and non-athlete medical students. Four groups were formed relying upon gender and physical activity. Body measures were computed. The motor abilities were tested by a set of static and dynamic motor tests, and cardio respiratory functions were recorded. No statistically significant differences were obtained from the comparisons of the body measures of basketball players and non-athlete medical students, except the body height. In contrast, significant differences were found both between the motor performances and between the cardio respiratory functions of the athlete and non-athlete groups. The body mass index (BMI) and the body fat (%) correlated negatively with static hanging, vertical jumping, and balance capability. On the contrary, BMI and body fat correlated positively with systolic blood pressure and vital capacity. The present results show that the effects of regular physical exercise on motor performances and cardio respiratory functions differentiate better between the athlete and non-athlete subjects than the changes in body measures.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
K. Kiss
,
Zs Mészáros
,
M. Mavroudes
,
M. Szmodis
,
M. Zsidegh
,
N. Ng
, and
János Mészáros

The aim of this comparison was to evaluate the nutritional status and cardio-respiratory fitness of future health professionals, namely university students engaged in medical studies. It was assumed that the lifestyle of such students would be reflected by healthy body composition and fitness performance indicators. Altogether 1,560 volunteer, female, university students of three institutions were investigated in 2008. Height, body weight, BMI, body fat content and 800 m run test means were compared.The height, weight and BMI means did not differ significantly but PE students recorded the lowest mean body fat (18.34% vs. 24.37 and 25.12%) and shortest mean running time (203 s vs. 239 and 243 s). Among the medical (11.23%) and technical university students (19.95%) statistically the same prevalence of obesity was observed.High body fat content and low running performance of medical students were in contrast with our hypothesis. Their prevalence of overweight/obesity and low fitness did not differ from that of relatively sedentary technical university students and the average Hungarian young adult population. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the necessity and positive effects of regular physical activity if they do not apply them to their own lifestyle.

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Information about children’s daily physical activity in Eastern-Europe is essential because of the increasing prevalence in overweight and obesity. Sixty-three children (age=11.16 ± 1.10 years; 33 boys and 30 girls) from two public elementary schools had their physical activity objectively measured using uni-axial accelerometer every 5 seconds for five consecutive days (3 weekdays, 2 weekend days). After data cleaning, 10 children were excluded from database. There were no significant differences in boys’ and girls’ BMI (17.6±2.2 vs. 17.1±2.4) and BF% (18.0±5.2 vs. 19.4±5.0). Children engaged in more sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity and had higher counts per minute during weekdays compared to weekend days. There were no sex differences in moderate to vigorous physical activity (87.6±22.4 vs. 93.5±20.6 min and 53.6±21.3 vs. 59.4±22.0 min) during weekday and weekend days. Data indicated that 96% of the girls and 92% of the boys met the international physical activity guideline for children of 60 minutes of MVPA, on weekdays.

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