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related discourses. Of particular interest is the positioning of education within “hostile environment” regimes of practices, where the school is weaponized for border control purposes. The “hostile environment” 2 The “hostile

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Az Európai Unió és a tagállamok válasza a COVID–19 pandémiára – a szabad mozgás jogának közegészségügyi korlátozásai

European Union and Member State Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic – Restricting the Free Movement of EU citizens on Public Health Grounds

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Laura Gyeney
and
Marcel Szabó

Összefoglaló. A szabad mozgás és tartózkodás joga az uniós polgárság alapintézményének egyik leglényegesebb eleme. A 2020-ban kirobbant koronavírus világjárvány következtében az Európai Unió tagállamai az Európai Unió történetében először kénytelenek voltak radikális, korábban nem alkalmazott eszközökkel korlátozni a szabad mozgás és tartózkodás jogát annak érdekében, hogy megakadályozzák a vírus terjedését. A tanulmány keretében a COVID–19 világjárvány miatt bevezetett korlátozások alapulvételével annak vizsgálatára kerül sor, hogy a szabad mozgás joga közegészségügyi okból történő korlátozása milyen sajátosságokkal bír más, az Európai Unió alapszerződéseiben ugyancsak nevesített kivételekhez (közrend, közbiztonság) képest. A tanulmány ugyancsak vizsgálja azt a kérdést, hogy az Európai Unió által kibocsátott digitális zöldútlevél (vakcinaigazolvány) a Sinopharm és Szputynik-V vakcinával beoltott uniós polgárok számára is biztosítandó-e az uniós jog rendelkezései alapján.

Summary. The right of free movement of EU citizens is the cornerstone of Union citizenship. To control the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) and to protect the health and well-being of all Europeans, Member States gave a surprisingly quick response, taking unilateral restrictive measures affecting the operation of the internal market in an unprecedented way. On the one hand they have implemented serious travel restrictions at internal borders of the EU. On the other hand, several States have coupled travel bans/restrictions with a temporary reintroduction of border controls at their borders with other Members of the Schengen Area. During the first wave of the pandemic, altogether 17 Schengen States sent notifications regarding the reintroduction of border controls, which is particularly disheartening given that the lifting of EU internal border controls in the Schengen Area is one of the integration’s greatest achievements.

There is no doubt that the Member States’ restrictions on free movement detailed in the paper are well-founded from the point of view of both public international law and European law. As to how they should be put into practice: that is another issue. Still, it is the preferential role of free movement as a part of integration that requires a deeper examination of controversial measures to ascertain whether these are in compliance with EU legal principles. Among the elements to be reviewed are proportionality and the prohibition on discrimination.

It is beyond doubt that COVID-19 can definitely be regarded as a ‘disease with epidemic potential’ that can justify restrictions on free movement. However, the question arises whether Article 29 TFEU provides for the introduction of public health restrictions with general effect. In other words, does it allow for restrictions not based on individual assessment, as opposed to individual threats to public policy and public security? In answering the above question the paper puts a special emphasis on the delimitation of Member States’ public health and public policy/security justifications.

At the time of writing (June 2021) several Member States have already started to issue EU Covid-19 passports. The article also seeks answer to the question whether the Digital Green Certificate could (or, at least, should) be provided for Union citizens vaccinated with Sinopharm or Sputnik-V (vaccines approved by Hungary as a Member State, under European Union law).

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The abolishment of the internal border checks and the common procedures at the external borders fosters the decision-making of the European Union to establish large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice. The decrease of the security deficit by the control of immigration flow consists of three endeavours: the common border control policy, the common visa policy and the common asylum policy. The aim of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the development of the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice. The development process of these systems is not more than their integration into the so-called IT Agency. This new regulatory agency was established in January 2012. It has merged the operational management tasks of the further developed version of SIS (the SIS II), VIS and EURODAC and it is flexible to add other existing and potential new systems. Hence, the added-value of the IT Agency is to be assessed, since new technologies shall be harnessed to meet the requirements of enhancing security and facilitating travel at the external borders.

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European Community: Problems and Prospects in Eliminating Internal Border Controls on Sensitive Products ’ ( 1994 ) 1 Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 193 – 211

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Rendészeti közösségi oldalak alkalmazása a szaknyelvoktatásban

The Use of Policing Social Networking Sites in Teaching Technical Languages

Educatio
Author:
Erna Uricska

Needed in Border Control and their Development Potentials II . English for Border and Coast Guards: Specific-purpose English Language Skills and the FRONTEX Tools Designed for Their

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individuals in various contexts, the use of technologies processing such data is strictly regulated and limited to the fields of law enforcement and border control activities within the EU. 1 Law enforcement

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border control. As a matter of fact, contemporary migration policy is straightforwardly defined by the UK government as the development of a “hostile environment” for migration, a policy affecting not only newcomers, but also naturalized citizens from the

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have stirred up anti-immigration rhetoric and populist discourses of criminalization of asylum seekers. In the turn of the 21st century, border controls have been tightened, while welfare provision for asylum seekers has been drastically restricted, a

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regional urban center. As a consequence of this peripheral and marginalized position, Őrség became one of the least developed areas (in terms of infrastructure) in Transdanubia. Strict border controls in the 1950s left border areas in Hungary even more

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Daniel L. King
,
Sophia Achab
,
Susumu Higuchi
,
Henrietta Bowden-Jones
,
Kai W. Müller
,
Joël Billieux
,
Vladan Starcevic
,
John B. Saunders
,
Philip Tam
, and
Paul H. Delfabbro

Government responses to the coronavirus pandemic have varied greatly according to region, with differing priorities related to health and economic objectives and other factors affecting decisions including monitoring capabilities, border control, and the

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