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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Aidin Pahlavan
,
Mohammad Hassan Kamani
,
Amir Hossein Elhamirad
,
Zahra Sheikholeslami
,
Mohammad Armin
, and
Hanieh Amani

Introduction Bread is widely recognized as a primary source of energy for humans and plays a vital role in the world population's food basket. It possesses significant amounts of minerals, which are required for a healthy nutritious diet ( Cauvain

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Applying several hydrocolloids in ascending concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1% w/w flour basis) to bread making procedure was considered. Effect of hydrocolloids [guar, xanthan gum, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] as bread improver on Barbari (Iranian bread) was analysed in terms of microstructure. Image analysis parameters, hardness, and microstructure of fresh bread were analysed. The results confirmed the ability of hydrocolloids for improving fresh bread quality. Among all used hydrocolloids, HPMC and CMC produced the softest texture, smoothest and continuous structure, and improved overall the bread quality.

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The influence of three milling techniques (MT1: industrial roller-grinder, MT2: grain hammer crasher, and MT3: traditional millstone) and two baking methods (BM1: industrial oven, BM2: traditional ceramic stove heated by wood (log fire oven)) on mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) levels in bread were investigated. The DON and NIV concentrations in wheat grain, flour, and bread were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection methods. The 2 500 kg lot of wheat grain containing 1 400–1 900 μg kg −1 deoxynivalenol and 130–200 μg kg −1 nivalenol was divided into sub-lots which were processed to get three types of flour (F1: industrial bread flour, F2: industrial wholegrain flour and F3: traditional wholegrain flour). The concentrations of DON and NIV measured after milling the grain according to MT1 (yielding F1) amounted to 310–370 \g kg −1 and <50–70 μg kg t1 , respectively. After applying MT2 to the grain (yielding F2), the DON and NIV levels were measured to be 1 060–1 400 μg kg −1 and 60–87 μg kg −1 , respectively. Applying MT3 (yielding F3) produced a DON level of 1 100–1 770 μg kg 1 and a NIV level of 80–95 μg kg −1 . Six types of bread were baked from the three types of flour according to BM1 or BM2, and the mycotoxin levels were analysed. The average reduction in DON concentration after baking (70 min at 195–235 °C) was 47.2% for bread baked in the industrial oven and 48.7% for bread baked in the log fire oven. Concentrations of DON in bread prepared by the industrial MT1 were under the permitted limit of 500 μg kg −1 stated in EC (2006) regulation, despite the fact that the bread was baked from grains highly contaminated with mycotoxins. In the bread baked from traditional wholegrain flour, mycotoxin concentrations were higher (850–950 μg kg −1 ).

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
D. Šoronja Simović
,
N. Filipović
,
Z. Šereš
,
J. Gyura
,
A. Jokić
, and
B. Pajin

Research on the effects of additives produced from sugar beet is aimed at satisfying the daily intake of dietary fibre in the range of 25–35 g. Bakery products are usually consumed several times a day and this offers the possibility of incorporating dietary fibres from sugar beet. The addition of this additive to white flour can eliminate the negative effect of phytic acid, present in whole-grain cereal products, which inhibits the mineral intake. In the aim to decrease and eliminate adverse effects of sugar beet fibres on dough rheology and bread quality, optimal quantities of shortening and milk powder to the recipes were tested in order to counter addition of balance such effects. The influence of shortening and milk powder on characteristics of dough enriched with fibres (proving time and dough level) and parameters of bread quality (volume and crumb quality) was traced in two groups of samples: first without and second with 5% of added gluten. Applying regression analysis on measured parameters a mathematical model was defined. Based on presented data and regression analysis concerning samples with and without gluten, it can be stated that fibres enriched bread of the best quality can be made with gluten, shortening and milk powder at the level of 5%, 5% and 2%, respectively.

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A rapid and reliable liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in three different local bread types; wheat bread, bran bread, whole wheat bread. Acrylamide analyses were made in crust parts of the 85 bread samples. The method was linear up to 750 μg kg–1 food with a determination coeffi cient of 0.999. Recovery rate was found 99.3% with limit of detection and limit of quantifi cation values of 1.5 μg kg–1 and 5.0 μg kg–1, respectively. Certifi ed reference materials of crisp bread were analysed and acrylamide contents of these samples were found in the range cited in the certifi cates. Statistical correlations were investigated between acrylamide contents and protein contents, reducing sugar contents, moisture contents, pH, and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*) of bread samples. Sample preparation procedure and chromatographic conditions of acrylamide analysis were investigated in more detail, and a rapid, accurate, precise, and reliable analysis method was developed.

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The aim of the current paper was to elucidate the influence of temperature and time on acrylamide formation and physico-chemical characteristics of bread. Additionally, the effect of asparaginase addition to bran was evaluated. With increasing baking time and temperature, the amount of acrylamide (µg kg−1) increased. The results indicated that the acrylamide concentration in treated samples with asparaginase was significantly less than those without asparaginase treatment. Based on Pearson’ test, it was found that there was a significant correlation between baking temperature and acrylamide concentration (R=0.99, P=0.025; and R=0.98, P=0.026 for the samples prepared by baking for 2.5 min and 3 min, respectively). The firmness of bread samples increased with increasing baking temperature (P&gt;0.05), while asparaginase addition did not significant affect the textural characteristics of the final product. Breads baked at 320 °C for 3 min were more acceptable by the sensory panel in terms of their texture and chewiness, whereas the samples baked at 370 °C for 2.5 min had the lowest score in comparison to other evaluated samples.

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Glass transitions in starch, gluten and bread as measured

Dielectric spectroscopy and TMA methods

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
V. T. Huang
,
L. Haynes
,
H. Levine
, and
L. Slade

Dielectric Spectroscopy (DS) and Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) were used to identity the glass transition temperature (T g) of native wheat starch, vital wheat gluten and a commercial bread, in response to changes in moisture content. An open-ended coaxial probe technique was used to measure the permittivity or dielectric constant (ɛ′) and the loss factor (ɛ″) as functions of moisture, for 2.45 GHz frequency, at constant density and temperature. Plots of ɛ′ and ɛ″ as functions of moisture content showed dramatic changes in mobility-based dielectric properties, which occur upon transition from the glassy solid to the rubbery liquid state. The modified TMA method can measure the change in viscoelastic properties aroundT g. This study further confirms that synthetic polymer science principles can be applied to food systems.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J. Tarek-Tilistyák
,
J. Agócs
,
M. Lukács
,
M. Dobró-Tóth
,
M. Juhász-Román
,
Z. Dinya
,
J. Jekő
, and
E. Máthé

The nutritive value, the microbiological safety of oilseed cake (OSC) obtained from naked pumpkin seed (PuC), sunflower seed (SC), yellow linseed (LC), and walnut (WnC), and their impact on wheat flour (WF) dough and bread sensory characteristics at 5% and 10% addition ratio were investigated. The OSCs had high protein (34–50%), fat (8–15%), total dietary fibre (23–36%) content and high energy value (383–444 kcal/100 g)). The OSC samples with a minimal exception fulfilled the requirements of feed legislation in force. An increased water absorption, dough development time, and reduced elasticity were observed probably due to the enhanced fiber and protein content. Dough stability increased with WnC, and decreased with PuC or SC addition. Enrichment provided the appearance of a brown bread for WnC, of a half-brown bread for LC. PuC gave an unusual look. The appearance of OSC fortified bread similar to daily bread, was an advantage resulting the 1st rank for 10% WnC bread and the 2nd one for 10% LC bread (P=0.05). The studied OSCs are suitable for food enrichment, however, in case of PuC and SC fortified flour blends, hydrocolloid application is recommended. Our data suggest that the newly developed fortified breads could be a valuable source for healthy nutrition.

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Composite flours were formulated from wheat flour and additives containing high amylose starch, resistant starches of RS2 and RS3 types, and barley β-glucan. Different parameters of flours, doughs, and final breads were evaluated. Almost all composite flours had significantly worse parameters as flour and dough in comparison to control. Sensory parameters of breads were also lower, though loaves supplemented with up to 15% (w/w) of high amylose starch (Hylon® VII), RS2 (Hi-maize™ 260), and RS3 (Novelose® 330) were considered as acceptable, with higher content of RS observed. Loaves with β-glucan (Barliv™ barley betafiber) were not acceptable either in sensory or technological parameters.

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Bread is one of basic human dietary items. Bread products commercially available usually contain flour, water, yeast or sourdough, and numerous functional additives, among them inorganic chlorides (mainly NaCl), phosphates, and sulphates, modifying physicochemical properties of final products to be attractive for consumers. Various kinds (whole-wheat, rye, and wheat rye) of Polish commercial breads were examined for contents of chlorides, phosphates, and sulphates by combination of water extraction and ion chromatography with conductometric detection. The evaluated amounts of the analytes corresponded to 0.58–1.06 g of chlorides (1–1.8 g NaCl), 100–300 mg of phosphates, and 10–130 mg of sulphates in 100 g (ca. two slices) of bread, which means that bread can be an important source of inorganic ions for humans, in particular in case of high consumption.

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