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composition and bread making quality of Austrian grown wheats. Cereal Res. Commun. 25 :955–962. Lelley T. HMW glutenin subunit composition and bread making quality of Austrian grown

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chromosome 3A influencing bread-making quality in wheat, including a new gene for loaf volume, Lvl 1 . J. Cereal Sci. 41: 317–326. Worland A.J. Novel genes on chromosome 3A

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300 GRÖGER, S., M. OBERFORSTER, M. WERTENKER, H. GRAUSGRUBER, T. LELLEY, 1997: HMW glutenin subunit composition and bread making quality of Australian grown wheats. Cereal Research

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bread-making quality. Theor. Appl. Genet. 88 :759–763. Anderson O.D. PCR analysis to distinguish between alleles of member of a multigene family correlated with bread-making quality

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Demichelis, L.S. Vanzetti, J.M. Crescente, M.M. Nisi, L. Pflüger, C.T. Bainotti, M.B. Cuniberti, L.R. Mir, and M. Helguera

Seed storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins) play a key role in the determination of dough and bread-making quality in bread wheat. This is due to the interaction between high and low molecular weight glutenins subunits and gliadins, via complex inter- and intramolecular bondings. In contrast to high molecular weight glutenins, low molecular weight glutenins and gliadins analysis is difficult due to the large number of expressed subunits and coding genes. For these reasons the role of individual proteins/subunits in the determination of wheat quality is less clear. In this work we studied the effect of gene clusters Glu-A3/Gli-A1 and Glu-D3/Gli-D1 in bread-making quality parameters using 20 F4-6 families from the cross Prointa Guazú × Prointa Oasis, both cultivars carrying identical high molecular weight glutenins subunits composition and presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation, but differing in Glu-A3/Glu-D3 low molecular weight glutenins subunits and Gli-A1/Gli-D1 gliadins patterns. ANCOVA analysis showed a significant contribution of the Glu-D3/Gli-D1 gene cluster provided by Prointa Guazú to gluten strength explained by mixograph parameters MDS and PW, and Zeleny Test. Markers tagging Prointa Guazú Glu-D3/Gli-D1 alleles are available for strong gluten selection in breeding programs.

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Burnouf, T., Bouriquet, R. (1980): Glutenin subunits of genetically related European hexaploid wheat cultivars: their relation to bread-making quality. Theor. Appl. Genet. , 58, 107-111. Glutenin subunits of genetically related

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68 207 209 Belderok, B., Mesdag, J., Donner, D.A. 2000. Bread-making Quality of Wheat. A Century of Breeding in Europe. Part One: Developments in

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proteins and the effect of allelic variation on bread-making quality. Annu. Review of Plant Physiol. 38 :141–153. Payne P.I. Genetics of wheat storage proteins and the effect of allelic

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Winter wheat yield in three administrative regions of Kazakhstan (Almaty, South Kazakhstan, and Zhambyl) was analyzed during 1972-2009. Yield gains were greatest during 2000–2009, but absolute yields remain low (1.5–1.7 t/ha) and much below the production potential. Changes in important weather parameters over the same time period were also analyzed. Results indicated significant (15–20%) warming in winter and spring, as well as some increase in precipitation (spring and annual), especially in the last ten years. Increased temperatures in winter and precipitation in spring/annually were positively correlated with winter wheat yield, while increased temperatures in May had a small but negative effect on grain yield. Data from the four stations of the official variety testing system from 1972–2009 were also analyzed to evaluate the effect of variety on yield and quality. Genetic gain of the varieties released in the 1990s and 2000s, compared to Bezostaya 1 (1960s), was around 30%. However, the bread-making quality of new varieties, as well as the overall grain quality in variety trials, were reduced in protein content, with deteriorated dough physical properties, and therefore did not meet superior class requirements. Genetic diversity (coefficient of parentage and Shannon’s diversity index) of the winter wheat varieties tested in the 2000s was broader compared to the 1970s and 1980s, reflecting enhanced international cooperation and germplasm exchange. A negative association between genetic diversity parameters and some quality traits can be attributed to the utilization of more diverse high yielding parents with limited grain quality potential. Further yield increases and reductions in the yield gap should be based on improved agronomy, and the use of broadly-adapted varieties, with resistance to the biotic and abiotic stresses likely due to climate change.

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