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From the bibliography it is well known that pulsatile electromagnetic field has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It causes vasodilatation, myorelaxation, hyper-production of connective tissue and activation of the cell membrane. Therefore our aim was to study the possible therapeutic effect of pulsatile electromagnetic field in asthmatic children. Forty-two children participating in this study were divided in two groups. The 1st group consisting of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.8±0.4 yr) was treated by pulsatile electromagnetic field and pharmacologically. The 2 nd group served as control, consisting also of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.7±0.3 yr) and was treated only pharmacologically. Therapeutic effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field was assessed on the basis of pulmonary tests performed by means of a Spirometer 100 Handi (Germany). The indexes FVC, IVC, ERV, IRV, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, MEF75,50,25, PEF, PIF and the changes of the flow-volume loop were also registered. The pulsatile electromagnetic field was applied by means of the device MTU 500H, Therapy System (Brno, Czech Republic) for 5 days, two times daily for 30 minutes (magnetic induction: 3 mT, frequency: 4 Hz as recommended by the manufacturer). The results in children of the 1st group showed an improvement of FVC of   about 70 ml, IVC of about 110 ml, FEV1

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The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages.

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The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the history of knowledge on asthma from the Renaissance till the beginning of the 20 th century. During this period the clinical picture of bronchial asthma and some etiological factors - like familiarity of the disease, the role of the pollen, psychological factors - were cleared. The disease was relatively rare in these periods - the epidemiological explosion came only in the second half of the 20 th century. Data on pediatric asthma, before all in Hungary are demonstrated mostly based on the works of Schoepf and Bókai senior in the first half of the 19 th century.

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It is well known that the frequency distribution of cough sound varies in different pathological conditions. Its identification could have diagnostic value. In this study the cough sound frequency in adults (n=20, 51.7±11 yrs), children (n=21, 11.8±0.4 yrs) asthmatics and healthy volunteers (n=25, 21 yrs) was explored. All patients were suffering from bronchial asthma. They were on a stable therapeutic regime and in a quiet status. Voluntary cough sound was recorded by a microphone and a tape recorder and digitally processed. Overlapping technique and Fast Fourier Transform were used to estimate the sound spectra. The records were smoothed by the method of Pascal triangle. They demonstrate the mean values of cough sound spectra. The registered pseudo three-dimensional plots of cough sound frequency (1 K spectra as function in time) of adults showed that the intensity of frequencies increased from 100 to 900 Hz in 3-4 waves. These frequencies afterwards decreased and between 1 to 2 kHz a smaller elevation was present. The spectra of children resembled to the spectrum of adults but had a smoother course. The spectra of asthmatics had some specificity and differed from the spectrum of healthy volunteers.

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Recent findings on the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

Part I. Asthma as a neurohumoral disorder, a pathological vago-vagal axon reflex (Review)

Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: J. Székely and Á. Pataki

The novel data on the pathogenesis of asthma are summarized in this three-part review. Its immunological background is well established but it is more than an immunological disorder. Multiple lines indicate that both peripheral and central neural mechanisms are also involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. In the present first part of the review asthma is described as vago-vagal axon reflex brought about by multiple positive feed-back mechanisms, receptor upregulation, wind-up, phenotypic switch and formation of a pathological conditioned reflex. In the coming second part the main dispositional (mostly hormonal) and external contributing factors are reviewed, while the third part deals with the role of inheritance, i.e. with gene alleles leading to enhanced production of mediators of asthma.

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Recent findings on the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

Part II. The role of hormonal predisposition, environmental influences and conditioning leading to bronchial asthma

Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: József Székely and Á. Pataki

In this second part of the review on the pathogenesis of asthma the hormonal factors and adverse external events are shortly reviewed which skew the balance of Th1 vs. Th2 CD4+ lymphocytes towards the latter ones and this way increase the probability of atopic diseases. Among other the role of transplacental priming, insulin, insulin-like and other growth factors, lack of the usual microbial infections in the early childhood (the so-called hygiene hypothesis), gender, diminished testosterone production, gastroesophageal reflux, adverse effects during pregnancy are discussed. A separate chapter deals with the role of central nervous system in the etiology and finally the most common allergizing and airway tissue damaging agents are listed in tabulated form.

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Recent findings on the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

Part III. Genetic factors and a unifying hypothesis: hereditary traits, environmental influences and conditioning shift the balance of PLC products versus cAMP towards the former ones

Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: József Székely and Á Pataki

In the first part of this series of papers (Székely and Pataki, 102) the pathogenesis of asthma was approached as a pathological antigen-antibody complex induced vago-vagal axon reflex. In the next part (103) the contribution of individual hormonal predisposition, the environmental and the most frequent allergizing factors have been reviewed. In the first section of this last (third) part of the review the genetic factors contributing to the asthma are surveyed. In this field a great progress has been made during the last decade, a lot of genes have been pinpointed which contribute to the heredity of the disease. In the second section of this last paper on the etiology of asthma an attempt is made to summarize the previously reviewed data and some new ones. Actually a new hypothesis is proposed that beyond the multitude of genetic, environmental and hormonal factors the underlying biochemical mechanism is simple: the disequilibrium of two functionally opposing second messenger systems in the airways: the Ca i ++ liberating PLC-PKC cascade and the Ca i ++ level reducing cAMP mediated one with preponderance of the former.

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.: Changes in the IgE content of the serum and bronchial mucosa in extrinsic and intrinsic bronchial asthma. Progr. Resp. Res., 1980, 14, 47–50. 23 Ying, S., Humbert, M

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Balázs Odler and Veronika Müller

.: Bronchial asthma. In: Magyar, P., Losonczy, G. (eds.): Handbook of pulmonology. [Asthma bronciale. In: Magyar, P., Losonczy, Gy. (szerk.): A pulmonológia kézikönyve.] Medicina Könyvkiadó, Budapest

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: Kinga Balla, István Gyene, Klára Szentágothai, Zsuzsa Bak, and Györgyi Mezei

, K., Gyene, I., Szócska, M. et al.: Physical exercise program for children with bronchial asthma. Pediatr. Pulmon., 1987, 3 , 166–172. Szócska M. Physical exercise program

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