space and boundaries of it practically advance cellular modeling [ 6 ]. Onouye–Kane reviews the statics and strength of loadbearing buildingstructures. The emphasis is on dimensioning and testing the strength of each support structure. At the same time
dimensional mathematical model of heat transmission of buildingstructures (in Hungarian)
Hungarian Research Found OTKA
T 038336, 2006.
William S. J.
Engineering heat transfer
, Second Edition, CRC Press, New
Building materials (finished products), as well as space-forming and load-bearing buildingstructures, in particular foundations, walls and pillars, ceilings and roof structures, have been
Intensive church construction activity of the Hungarian Christian churches stopped fundamentally, because of the secularization that came with the political takeover after WWII. The style and forming techniques of the churches built in the interwar period could be perceptible for almost two decades, but from the early 1960s new form experimentations have begun, and style pluralism has widened from the 1970s, thanks to the impulse of Vatican Council II. New, in the field of church architecture formerly not used building structures and materials appeared beside the traditional ones (which often gave an industrial, almost profane appearance to the sacral space). Churches in the period were built under the simplest circumstances — with the easiest obtainable building materials and with the help from the local communities -, thus there is not really an opportunity to analyse complex structural systems and joints, so this study aims to group the buildings according to the visual-aesthetic appearance and accent of the structures. The research took into account a much larger building stock than mentioned in previous literature. Although most of these churches do not own outstanding architectural value, still their numerical value and their construction itself are important from a sociological, church historical perspective. The churches enumerated in the article are intentionally not cited in chronological order. After the analysis of these buildings, it is clear that the traditional longitudinal arrangement with the conventional brick masonry and timber roof structure is dominant in the first third of the period. Later mainly monolith reinforced concrete frame structures with infill brickwork, or freely formed structural systems with reinforced concrete slabs were designed. Traditional building materials and structures come to the fore with the spread of the postmodern and the rediscovery of the elements of historicism in the last stage of the examined period.
The study involves structures applicable in building structures. Present part I includes structures applicable in building structures. Building structures for this are classified according to functions. Two main groups can be distinguished: frameworks and building structures ensuring serviceability. Further subgroups can be distinguished within both main groups.
Upon examining the structural frame it is clear that buildings can be well classified according to frameworks. The four-element-classification of vertical load-bearing structural elements, walls and pillars — wall frame, pillar frame, mixed frame and frames without walls and pillars — provide a rather simple classification. Considering the different construction technologies of walls and pillars, and frameworks differing from these provides a multi-element classification. Various subgroups can be distinguished based on the relationship between walls and pillars as well as ceilings within the individual groups.
, McCarron, J., DeMarco. P. Maple advanced programming guide, Waterloo Maple , 2010.
Vajda J., Perjési-Hámori I. Two dimensional mathematical model of heat-transmission in buildingstructures, Pollack Periodica , Vol
In heat transfer calculations, transmittance values are often used as a constant in practice. With the spread of dynamic simulations, it opens an opportunity to study the sensitivity of the external effects (e.g., wind speed) on buildings. With the proper amount of result, adequate simplifications can be made to reduce the duration of the simulations. In this paper several steady sate simulations were carried out by Ansys 19.1. Academic version. In the examined cases three building structures were examined with different thermal resistances. Average initial air temperature difference was applied on the two sides of the structures, at the cold side the wind speed was varied, while at the warm side natural convection was present. The surface temperatures and the heat flux were monitored and the transmittances were calculated as a result.
Creating typology is a comparative method to investigate the physical or other characteristics of the built environment. It can be a useful instrument to facilitate the thermal performance assessment of existing buildings. Heat material’s resistance and construction techniques play a significant role in energy performance of buildings. It is influenced by many factors, such as ambient weather conditions, building structure, and heating, ventilation and airconditioning systems.
The study was focused on analyzing five types of residential buildings at the center of the Sulaimani city (north of Iraq) to assess the energy performance of the building types and comparing results with dynamic analyses, using IDA ICE 4.7.1 software. The results revealed that the thermal performance of the buildings is mostly influenced by the variations in the construction techniques and materials.