Notes on the Gepid Corpus
. The idea of the publication of the Gepid cemeteries in Hungary was conceived about 25 years ago and the drawing of the finds recovered during the recent excavations started in 1985 (Szolnok-Szanda, Kishomok, Ártánd, Biharkeresztes, etc.). Finally, two volumes were edited but the Ártánd and the Biharkeresztes cemeteries (Kisfarkasdomb and Nagyfarkasdomb), which stood in the full glare of international publicity, were omitted. On Kisfarkasdomb, the author unearthed 25 graves in 1966 and a further one in 1971 so he finds it fair to compensate for the debt of 40 years. The burial customs observed in the cemetery (S-N and exceptionally 3 W-E orientations of the graves, artificial cranial deformations and weapons placed in the graves of women) and certain types of the finds, the brooches (mostly simple ones, with inverted foot), the buckles (among them two gilded silver
), the 11 vessels found in the cemetery (mostly copies of provincial Roman vessels), the beads (characteristic discoid amber beads), a few spears, spindle whorls, a nomadic metal mirror, and a two-sided bone comb suggest that the cemetery was opened at the end of the 4
century before the Hun period and it was used all through the Hun period. From a historical aspect, it is only the Gepid ethnicity that could use the cemetery within the given chronological frames, so the cemetery plays a key role in the determination of the early phase of the Gepid legacy.
recently explored sites it seems worthwhile to give a new assessment of the burialcustoms and chronological considerations of the funerary record ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Map of the sites and locations mentioned in the text. 1: Adaševci; 2: Alsónyék; 3: Atenica
The study analyses the topography and the burial customs of the 11th–13th century graves excavated at Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor), together with their relationship to the settlement- and stone building remains of the site. It concludes how and how long could coexist from the 11th century onwards a county seat and a monastery surrounded by the same ramparts.
In the past decades researchers examining burial customs have recognised local phenomena pointing to the cultural diversity of the Avar population inhabiting the Carpathian Basin. Thus it has been proposed that several groups of different traditions and cultures may have coexisted in the territory of the Avars. In the recently excavated 7th–8th-century Avar cemeteries near Szekszárd (Szekszárd-Tószegidűlő, Tolna-Mözs-Fehérvize-dűlő) another — already known (Szekszárd-Bogyiszlói út és Gyönk-Vásártér út cemetery) — characteristic phenomenon was observed that can now be regarded as a regional feature. The paper discusses this burial type - which has recently also been found in great numbers in the cemetery of Tolna-Mözs —, namely the empty graves containing no human remains. Empty burials have been known in cemeteries of the Avar Age, however, their number is usually insignificant compared to the total number of graves. The aim of this paper is to analyse the possible reasons for empty graves and to show that they were the result of a conscious custom, most probably intended as symbolic burials.
From June to September 2013 I was organizing an exhibition entitled “Ancient Death Masks” in the Hungarian National Museum. The most important goal of the exhibition was to display for visitors an idea supported by scholarly research. According to this conclusion, silver and gold death masks observed in the graves of the 10th century Hungarians who settled in the Carpathian Basin originated from Magna Hungaria, the Uralian territory of the Hungarians. We displayed death masks found in three large regions of Eurasia: that of Tashtyk Culture in the Yenisei Valley (1st–5th cc.), 6th–11th century masks of the Ural Region, and 10th century masks from the Carpathian Basin (Fig. 1). Although the religious background of the masks in the three territories is similar, the forms of manifestation are different. From the shape of the masks we can clearly conclude that the 10th century Hungarians brought this burial custom from the Ural Region, Magna Hungaria. This can be cited among the few pieces of archaeological evidence (compeer to the historical evidence) attesting to the migration of the Hungarians from the east to the west.
Kazimierz Lewartowski: Late Helladic Simple Graves. A study of Mycenaean burial customs. BAR International Series 878. Oxford: Archaeopress 2000. 140 oldal, 44 táblázat, 4 kép, 5 térkép és egy rajzos tábla. ISBN 1 84171 079 2
The Burgenländische Landesmuseum has in its collections some “Totengedenkbildchen“, small prints to keep the memory of a deceased person. They had come to the museum by chance. Most of them commemorate soldiers of WW2, only a few were printed after 1945. Collecting attempts in the spring of 2000 showed, that the custom to give away such items continued up to the present, it even seems that it has become more common in the last years. Some very new examples are already home made on PC.
N-S oriented grave group in the Gepid cemetery of Biharkeresztes-Ártánd-Nagyfarkasdomb
. There was a grave group in the Hun period Gepid cemetery of Biharkeresztes-Ártánd-Nagyfarkasdomb that could be characterised by N-S orientation, drink offerings usually placed in a jug at the head and the special costumes. Both men and women wore buckled boots on the feet and two or three belts around the waists: one belonged to the trousers, one to the kaftan and one to the weapon. These burial customs were characteristic of the Alans of the Hun period.
The Somogyszil cemetery had become known in 1964, when a local resident reported the finds. The site was excavated by Balázs Draveczky uncovering 148 late Roman graves up to 1968. The whole cemetery was published in 1979 by Alice Sz. Burger. Our research agenda focuses on the spatial organization of the burial grounds used by the province’s rural population as well as on burial customs (funerary rites, grave and burial types), chronology and the mapping of local and non-local tendencies. During the critical re-assessment of the cemetery, we have found that the establishment and use of this late Roman burial ground could be connected to a heterogeneous community.
Bóna István a szegvár-sápoldali 1. sírt az avarság első generációjához sorolta. Ennek megfelelően a temetkezési szokások és a mellékletek keleti párhuzamait keleten, főleg Közép- és Belső-Ázsiában kereste. Ugyanakkor az új eredmények fényében a sápoldali halott kulturális gyökerei Kelet- Európában, a Sivašovka-típusú temetkezések előzményei között keresendők. A sírban talált tárgyak kapcsolatai nem ázsiai, sokkal inkább közép-kelet-európai kontextusban értelmezhetők.