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inflation of vehicle air-bags, which has relatively low burning rate exponent of ≤0.7 and has decomposition ≥85% of theoretical decomposition. Batchelder [ 2 ] has formulated a smokeless, slow burning and low flame temperature AN and polystyrene propellants

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Abstract  

AP/HTPB based composite propellants with additives such as ammonium oxalate (AO), mixture of ammonium oxalate and strontium carbonate (SC) was investigated by burning rate, TG-DTG and FTIR experiments. The results show that the burning rates of these propellants are decreased significantly. TG-DTG experiments indicate that decomposition temperatures of AP with these additives are increased. Furthermore, the activation energy of the decomposition reaction of AP is also increased in the presence of AO or AO/SC. These results show that AO or AO/SC restrains the decomposition of AP. The burning rates of these propellants are decreased. The burning rate temperature sensitivity of AP/HTPB based propellants is reduced significantly by the addition of AO or AO/SC. But the effect of AO is less than that of AO/SC. AO/SC is better effect to reduce temperature sensitivity and at the same time, to reduce pressure exponent. The reduced heat release at the burning surface of AP/HTPB/AO is responsible for the reduced temperature sensitivity. Synergetic action is probably produced between AO and SC within AP/HTPB based propellants in the pressure range tested. This synergetic effect causes the heat release to reduce and the burning surface temperature to increase. Moreover, it makes the net exothermal reaction of condensed phase become little dependent on T 0. Thus, the burning rate temperature sensitivity is reduced.

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The thermal decomposition characteristics of1,7-diazido-2,4,6-trinitrazaheptane (DATH) and multi-component systems containing DATH were studied by using DSC, TG and DTG techniques. Three –NO2 groups in the DATH molecule break away first from the main chain when DATH is heated up to 200C. Following this process, the azido groups and the residual molecule decompose rapidly to release a great deal of heat within a short time. In the multi-component systems, DATH undergoes a strong interaction with the binder of the double-base propellant and a weak interaction with RDX. The burning rates of the two propellants were determined by using a Crawford bomb. The results showed that the burning rate rises by about 19–66% when 23.5%DATH is substituted for RDX in a minimum smoke propellant. Meanwhile, the N2 level in the combustion gases is enhanced, which is valuable for a reduction of the signal level of the solid propellant.

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BTATz-CMDB propellants

High-pressure thermal properties and their correlation with burning rates

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Jian-Hua Yi, Feng-Qi Zhao, Ying-Hui Ren, Bo-Zhou Wang, Cheng Zhou, Xiao-Ning Ren, Si-Yu Xu, Hai-Xia Hao, and Rong-Zu Hu

double base (CMDB) propellant with the high burning rate and favorable combustion property [ 7 – 10 ]. The BTATz-CMDB propellants without and with the ballistic modifier were prepared, and the investigation at normal pressure was carried out in

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Comparative study of HMX and CL-20

Thermal analysis, combustion and interaction with aluminium

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: O. Ordzhonikidze, A. Pivkina, Yu. Frolov, N. Muravyev, and K. Monogarov

reaction of HMX combustion, authors used a Zel’dovich model [ 21 ] with the burning rates and surface temperatures, experimentally determined at different pressures: 4 where m is the mass burning rate ; c p is the specific heat capacity; ρ is the

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The chemical stability of a propellant and its influence on the ballistic properties during aging is a subject of interest. The effect of aging on ballistic properties, viz., ignition delay, burning rate, and heat of combustion for an aluminised ammonium perchlorate–hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (AP/HTPB) composite propellant during accelerated aging were investigated. Samples of composite propellants were aged at 60 and 70 °C at relative humidity of 50% in a climatic chamber. The propellant samples were tested with pressurized nitrogen gas environment for ignition delay measurement. Test results indicate that aging does not have any appreciable effect on ignition delay. The change in ignition delay time is less than 3% within the scatter of the data. Experiment results indicate that burn rate do affect with pressure but aging does not have much effect on burn rate. It was also observed that the burning rate at low pressures did not undergo significant changes during the aging period. The most significant of all the ballistic properties of this propellant is the burning rate exponent which increased by about 10% during the aging period.

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Plasma synthesized nano-aluminum powders

Structure, thermal properties and combustion behavior

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Alla Pivkina, D. Ivanov, Yu. Frolov, Svetlana Mudretsova, Anna Nickolskaya, and J. Schoonman

Abstract  

The plasma electro-condensation process was used to synthesize nano-sized aluminum powders. Adding different chemicals modified the physical and chemical properties of these powders. To characterize the nano-sized powders, X-ray diffraction, TEM, BET analyses, and simultaneous TG/DSC analyses were performed. TG/DSC analyses revealed a dramatic degradation of the aluminum oxide layer after storage of the aluminum powder in air for a period of several months. The burning rate of the model solid propellant with nano-sized aluminum was experimentally examined. The combustion behavior of nano-sized aluminum will be presented and will be compared with the combustion behavior of the micron-sized powders.

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The constant-volume combustion energies of the lead salts of 2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitropyridine (2HDNPPb) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitropyridine (4HDNPPb), ΔU c (2HDNPPb(s) and 4HDNPP(s)), were determined as –4441.922.43 and –4515.741.92 kJ mol–1 , respectively, at 298.15 K. Their standard enthalpies of combustion, Δc m H θ(2HDNPPb(s) and 4HDNPPb(s), 298.15 K), and standard enthalpies of formation, Δr m H θ(2HDNPPb(s) and 4HDNPPb(s), 298.15 K) were as –4425.812.43, –4499.631.92 kJ mol–1 and –870.432.76, –796.652.32 kJ mol–1 , respectively. As two combustion catalysts, 2HDNPPb and 4HDNPPb can enhance the burning rate and reduce the pressure exponent of RDX–CMDB propellant.

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Abstract  

The effects of various burning rate catalysts on thermal decomposition of cured glycidyl azide polymer (GAP)-ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellants have been studied by means of thermal analysis and a modified vacuum stability test (MVST). Four types of iron-containing catalysts examined in this paper are catocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde (FCA), ferrocene, and ferric oxide. Results of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) revealed that the catalysts play an important role in the decomposition of both AP and GAP. The peak decomposition temperature (T m) of DTA curves and onset decomposition temperature (T o) of TG patterns considerably shifted to a lower temperature as the concentration of catalysts increased in the propellants. The endothermic temperature of AP, however, is unaffected by the presence of burning rate catalysts in all cases. The activation energy of decomposition of the propellants in range of 80 to 120°C is determined, based on the MVST results.

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This paper reports the synthesis, characterisation and thermolysis studies of a series of azotetrazolate salts, viz., ammonium/guanidinium/triaminoguanidinium [azotetrazolate]. TG-DTA and DSC results of these compounds exhibited their thermal stability up to 180°C. DSC indicated the highest heat release (2804 J g-1) for guanidinium azotetrazolate salt during exothermic decomposition. FTIR of the decomposition products of azotetrazolate salts showed bands at 3264 and 2358 cm-1 which may be attributed to gaseous species such as NH3 and HCN or NH2CN. The sensitivity data suggests low vulnerability of ammonium and guanidinium salts. In cyclic voltammetric studies all the salts showed similar response in reduction reactions. Triamino guanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGAZ) was incorporated into solid propellant formulations in order to establish the compatibility of this class of compounds. DSC results revealed that it does not have adverse effect on thermal stability of double base matrix. The burning rate data obtained indicated that TAGAZ acts as an efficient energetic additive in composite modified double base (CMDB) propellant formulations in high-pressure region.

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