The study deals with theoretical questions of the Hungarian privatization law. It clarifies the differences between the economic and legal concept of privatization, the various interpretations of privatization. The Hungarian privatization was the earliest and at the same time-after the German-the quickest completed privatization in the former socialist countries. It reviews the so-called spontaneous privatization between 1988–1990, and the privatization legislature of 1992 and 1995 as well. As a conclusion the study deals with the evaluation of the privatization law, and with the consequences of privatization with regards to social politics.
Bartók’s American estate dates its origins to 1943, when he entrusted his music manuscript collection to the care of two fellow Hungarian emigrés, Gyula Báron and Victor Bator, both then living in the United States. After his death in 1945 the estate devolved into their care, in accord with the legal provisions of the will. For the next 22 years it was carefully managed by Bator, a lawyer and businessman who lived in New York City for the rest of his life. The onset of Cold War politics in the late 1940s presented numerous challenges to the estate, out of which emerged the tangled thicket of rumor, litigation, misunderstanding, confusion, and personal animosity that has been the American Bartók estate’s unfortunate legacy since the 1950s.As one of Hungary’s most significant cultural assets located outside the country’s borders, the American Bartók estate has since 1981 been under the control and careful supervision of Peter Bartók, now the composer’s only remaining heir. All but forgotten is the role Victor Bator played in managing the estate during the difficult years after World War II, when its beneficiaries became separated by the Iron Curtain, setting in motion legal and emotional difficulties that no one in the immediate family could have predicted. Equally overlooked is the role he played in enhancing the collection to become the world’s largest repository of Bartók materials.A considerable amount of Bator’s personal correspondence related to the early years of the Bartók estate has recently come to light in the U.S. Together with U.S. court documents and information gleaned from recent interviews with Bator’s son, Francis Bator, still living in Massachusetts, and the late Ivan Waldbauer, we can now reconstruct with reasonable accuracy the early history of Bartók’s estate. A strikingly favorable picture of Bator emerges. Bartók, it turns out, chose his executors wisely. A cultivated and broadly learned man, by the late 1920s Victor Bator had gained recognition as one of Hungary’s most prominent legal minds in the field of international business and banking law. His professional experience became useful to the Bartók estate as the Communist party gradually took hold of Hungary after World War II, seizing assets and nationalizing property previously belonging to individual citizens. His comfort in the arena of business law also thrust him into prominence as a public advocate for increased fees for American composers in the late 1940s - a matter of tremendous urgency for composers of serious music at the time. By reconstructing Bator’s professional career prior to 1943 his actions as executor and trustee become more understandable. We gain new insight into a figure of tremendous personal importance for Bartók and his family.
Kereskedelmi jog. (BusinessLaw.) (In Hungarian) Budapest, 1872, p. 806.
Földi, A., Hamza, G.:
A római jog története és institúciói. (The History and the Institutions of the Roman Law.) (In Hungarian) Budapest, 2005, p
Authors:William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, and Mark D. Griffiths
The study received ethical approval from the ethics committee of Nottingham Trent University College of BusinessLaw and Social Sciences. We confirm that the participant provided full written consent for their data to be published in an