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Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the role of seed soaking with spermine (Spm, 10 mg/l) and the foliar application of mineral nutrients (K and Zn), alone or in combination, in improving the tolerance of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) to calcareous and salinity stress conditions. Both the individual treatments and the interaction increased the stem diameter, shoot fresh and dry weights, yield, yield components and oil yield, as well as the concentrations of K, Ca, P and Zn and the K/Na ratio, whereas they decreased the Na concentration in the two growing seasons. The best results were obtained with the K+Zn+Spm treatment in both seasons.It could be concluded that seed soaking with Spm and the foliar application of K and Zn might alleviate the harmful effects of calcareous and salinity stress and enhance the ability of sunflower plants to tolerate these adverse conditions.

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