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. Nyomárkay 1993a = Nyomárkay István (szerk.): Magyarországi szláv kéziratok II. Budapest, 1993. Nyomárkay 1993b = Nyomárkay István: „Le cas du calque… est plus complexe“ (B. Unbegaun). Über die Lehnübersetzungen mit besonderer

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The author claims that the common cultural grounds between languages may be demonstrated by words and phrases which were created analogically, based on a similar linguistic image of the world. This image can be reconstructed in the most reliable way on the basis of the origin of these words, so etymology plays a decisive role in research. It is fruitful to study the linguistic representation of certain objects, actions, notions or characteristic features in several languages of a larger area simultaneously since the results of this ‘comparative etymology’ may put some light on the roots of these common cultural grounds. Loanwords and calques, filling in a certain gap in the borrowing language, can also contribute to the transfer of the linguistic image of the world from the donor language, which makes the adaptation of these phrases in the recipient language easier.

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Texts are the most reliable bases for investigating language contacts. The field of research for philology is the analysis and semantic processing of texts. The present study deals with the effects of Hungarian terminology on Croatian judiciary terminology in the 15th century based on the original Latin book of law and its contemporary Hungarian and Croatian translations. The corpus in this research contains words borrowed from Hungarian as well as calques and semantic loans created on the basis of Hungarian patterns. In addition, the study analyzes various attitudes behind certain phrases.

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Among the Burgenland Croats this is probably a borrowing from Hungarian ( szalmaözvegy ‘straw widow’), where in turn it is interpreted as a calque from German. Let us add that in the Southern part of Burgenland's Croats in Hungary (as well as among the

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translate to languages of countries “outside” the former socialist block. Thus, for readers from former Socialist countries, calquing and transliteration are perfectly acceptable methods, while “for a French, English, American, or any other reader from a non

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Following K. Schumann's classification, the paper establishes 8 of the 23 possible types of loan translations and semantic loans in the Renaissance Croatian drama. At the same time, two new types of calquing are also identified: “Lehngebrauch der Rektionen von Verben und Substantiven” and “syntaktische Lehngebrauch der Rektionen der Lehnwörter”. In using loan translations or semantic loans the authors' individual choice is for the lexical types, while in terms of syntactic loans the widespread and generally accepted forms are preferred.

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In the present study, the principles of nomination of sacrum are analysed on the basis of linguistic and cultural data. The os sacrum has been considered sacred as a nidus for resurrection since antiquity. Its names are motivated by the meaning ‘cross’ in Slavic, Germanic, and Hungarian. In Slavic texts, this image appeared in the 16th century. This late use allows us to see it as a semantic calque of German Kreuz but the first known occurrence in German was attested in the 17th century.

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The article deals with the specific character of the initial elaboration stage of the Belorussian scientific terminology in the 1920s. The members of the 1921 Scientific-terminological committee are listed here for the first time. A conclusion is made that the terminology of the 1920s was not created out of nowhere, but to a considerable extent rested upon the achievements of the terminological practice of the previous period. The factor that in the early 1920s publishers of Vil'nia, rather than that of Minsk had the priority to publish Belorussian-speaking educational literature left a certain mark on the terminology of the 1920s. It is symptomatic that compilers of the East-Belorussian terminologies did not accept in some cases usual international terms which were in usage in West Belorussia, but suggested neologisms, Polonisms or migratory calques instead.

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Formulaicity, an inherent feature of language, may typify film discourse. Imitation of conversation is posited to extend to conversational routines in original fictive orality, whereas the language of dubbing is believed to increase its formulaicity through translational routines, reiterated translation solutions generating recurrent strings in the target texts. Despite the role assigned to formulaicity, few corpus-based investigations have set out to account for the types, frequency and functions of formulas in both original and dubbed audiovisual dialogue. By drawing on the Pavia Corpus of Film Dialogue − a unidirectional English–Italian parallel corpus totalling about 500,000 words − this study analyses a special kind of formulas, English demonstrative clefts, and their formulaic translations. It evaluates how closely film language reproduces these frequent features of conversational formulaicity, and to what extent source-based patterns are resorted to in dubbing. The results show that demonstrative clefts of the type That’s what I see are frequent in Anglophone film language, where they contribute to the naturalness of the register. In the Italian translations, English demonstrative clefts give way to recurring solutions that are calqued on the original triggers, exhibit a degree of fixedness in the target language and contribute to the specificity of dubbed Italian.

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The “próstaja mova” is one of the written languages used by both Ukrainians and Belorussians during the 16th and 17th centuries. In this article it is argued that its name is based on a calque of German Gemeinsprache, die gemeine Sprache, a term from the Reformation age. The „prostaja mova” was based on the Ruthenian (Ukrainian and Belorussian) chancery language and developed into a literary language because of its growing polyfunctionality, its increasingly superregional character, and its stylistic variability. The norms of the “prostaja mova” were based on its common usage, not on codification. We discuss the role of Church Slavonic and Polish elements on the different levels of this language and try to show that a “prototypical” text written in the “prostaja mova” was a translation from a real or only virtual Polish text, consisting in the “Ruthenization” of its phonology and morphology and, if it was a written text, in a change of the alphabets - the lexicon and the syntax, instead, remained mainly on a Polish basis. Until the 18th century the Polish language itself had gained so much importance among the Ruthenian gentry that the “prostaja mova” had lost its main addressee and was restricted only to some homiletic and cathechetic works for the common people of the Greek-Catholic Church.

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