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A total of 146 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from swine in Hungary in the last 20 years were examined. Biochemical characterisation and PCR-based techniques were used to determine species, subspecies, biovar, capsule type and presence of the toxA gene. Eighty-seven percent of the isolates belonged to P. multocida ssp. multocida , and 98% of these had biovar 3 or were trehalose-or lactose-fermenting or ornithine decarboxylase negative variants of that. Ten percent of the strains were P. multocida ssp. septica , and within this group 80% of the strains showed sorbitol-negative biovars (5, 6 and 7). The rest of the strains (20%) were lactose positive. Only 3% of the porcine isolates were P. multocida ssp. gallicida and 3 out of the 4 strains belonged to the dulcitol-fermenting biovar 8. Using a capsule-specific multiplex PCR, 60% of the strains belonged to capsule type D, 38% to capsule type A, and only 1 isolate had capsule type F. In contrast with data published in the literature, only 3% of capsule type D isolates carried the toxA gene, while this ratio was 41% for the type A strains. A remarkable regional distribution of toxA gene positive strains was observed. All but two isolates were found in swine herds located in the Transdanubian region, separated from other parts of Hungary by the river Danube.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Serra Örsten
,
Selay Demirci-Duarte
,
Tuğçe Ünalan-Altıntop
,
Aslı Çakar
,
Banu Sancak
,
Koray Ergünay
, and
Cumhur Özkuyumcu

, comprising 0.9% of all isolates tested. The sequencing of the amplicon provided a section of the wzc gene and revealed the capsule type as K5, via pairwise sequence comparisons and BLAST analysis. It is known that 79 distinct capsular types exist in

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Alexandra Sashova Alexandrova
,
Ivo Nikolaev Sirakov
,
Lena Petrova Setchanova
,
Kalina Ionkova Mihova
,
Daniela Rosenova Pencheva
, and
Raina Tsvetanova Gergova

[ 2 ]. The typeable H. influenzae strains possess a polysaccharide capsule encoded by the cap locus, in which Region II genes determine capsule types “a” through “f” and arrange the serotypes [ 3 ]. The non-capsulated H. influenzae strains are

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with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance . Vet. Ital. 48 , 10 . Oh , Y.-H. , Moon , D.-C. , Lee , Y. J. , Hyun , B.-H. and Lim , S.-K. ( 2018 ): Antimicrobial

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