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Molecular characterization of proliferating carnation plant tissues revealed association with a pararetroviroid-like agent. Carnation small virod-like RNA termed as CarSV RNA is unique among plant viroidlike RNA s by having a homologous DNA counterpart in the plant genome. Previously, CarSV DNA related sequences had been detected in the plant genome fused to microsatellite-like genomic sequences. Here we present data that tissue proliferation symptoms can be seen only on those plants that are expressing the RNA form of this agent. As CarSV RNA adopts a hammerhead structure in both polarities and the plant genome naturally encodes a functional hammerhead ribozyme, it can be concluded that these ribozyme sequences are cleaved out from the plant genome. This could lead to the evolution of small RNA s that replicate autonomously by the rolling circle mechanism and later could spread horizontally by vegetative propagation of the plant material, or by using a hitchhiked plant pararetrovirus fused to its genome.

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Hassan, F. A. S., Gerzson, L. 2002: Effect of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) on the vase life of Chrysanthemum and Carnation cut flowers. International Journal of Horticultural Science , 8 , 29

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Abstract

The Vienna Hours, illuminated by the artist known as the “Master of Mary of Burgundy”, was originally commissioned by Margaret of York. The later parts of the manuscript commemorate the love and marriage between Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of Habsburg, and their (newborn or expected) child.

The miniatures and texts in question convey the same idea expressed on several occasions by the official historian, Jean Molinet: in the Burgundian court, the duchess was venerated as the Virgin Mary (and in consequence of this, Maximilian – and Philip – came to be revered as the Saviour, and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, as the Father). Underlying the tendency to identify Mary of Burgundy with the Virgin Mary was the situation of Burgundy and its heiress, which was understood by means of salvation-historical analogies. In the book of hours, the figures of the two Marys are conflated several times in a variety of ways (fols. 14v, 19v, 43v, 94v, 99v). The hymn in praise of the heavenly joys of the Virgin Mary, which is organically related to the frontispiece image, is thus (also) a chanted sequence for the eternal beatitude of the young bride. The painter conjured up the imaginary figure of Maximilian in the foreground of the two miniatures with window scenes, while the jewels in the border around the image of the Crucifixion scene allude to Margaret of York. These miniatures have a playful tone (as evidenced by the role-swapping between the Marys, the book-within-a-book, picture-within-a-picture, vision-within-a-vision, trompe l’oeil solutions, and the complex dialogue between objects, materials and locations).

There are a number of factors supporting the argument that the miniatures, hitherto attributed to the Master of Mary of Burgundy, were illuminated by Hugo van der Goes, who was a resident of the Red Cloister at the time, and that he was commissioned by the Austrian Archduke. The date of 1478 is rendered likely by stylistic and biographical factors (the paintings Hugo made in the cloister, both before and after, his later illness, the visit of Maximilian, the birth of Philip the Handsome). It was also at this time that Jean Molinet wrote Le Chappellet des dames, which makes multiple comparisons between the duchess and the Virgin Mary, and whose imagery is often echoed in the folios of the Vienna Hours. It is possible that the first (co-)owner of the manuscript was Maximilian of Habsburg.

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A F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi strain, transformed with genes coding for fluorescent proteins (GFP or DsRedFP) as markers, was used to study the first host/pathogen interaction on carnation roots. The transformants’ mycelium observed under fluorescent light displayed a high expression of GFP and DsRedFP as a bright green or red cytoplasmic fluorescence. The root apparatus of a partially resistant cultivar of carnation was artificially inoculated by stable transformants and local colonization of plant tissues was monitored by means of fluorescence microscopy. A GFP transformed strain of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi allowed to follow first colonization steps on and within host root tissues. Implication of this research in studying resistance processes in carnation is discussed.

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The spatial distribution of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was analysed in ornamental crops (roses and spray-type carnations) and horticultural crops (pepper and strawberries), inside greenhouses, using sticky traps. In ornamental crops, at low population densities, during the winter, there was not a constant location of the isolated foci of infestation, from one week to the next, or a specific pattern of variation in that location. In spray-type carnations, pepper and strawberries, at higher population densities, in spring and summer, the basic units of distribution were the individuals, and they were aggregated. For roses, at those population levels, a random distribution was observed, with a tendency for aggregation. The number of traps needed to estimate population densities, in each crop, was evaluated for two fixed levels of precision (0.10 and 0.25) and results are indicated and discussed.

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Serrano, M., Asuncion, A., Pretel, M. T., Martinez-Madrid, M. C., Romoiaro, F. (2001): Preservative solutions containing boric acid delay senescence of carnation flowers. Postharvest Biol. Tech. , 23 , 133--142. Preservative

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Hoeberichts, F. A., Van Doorn, W. G., Vorst, O., Hall, R.D., van Wordragen, M. F. (2007) Sucrose prevents upregulation of senescence-associated genes in carnation petals. J. Exp. Bot. 58 , 2873–2885. Wordragen M F

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Genkov, T., Ivanova, I. (1995) Effect of cytokinin-active phenylurea derivatives on shoot multiplication, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of in vitro cultured carnation. Bulg. J. of Plant Physiol. 21 , 73

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cytokinins on vitrification in melon and carnation. Ann. Bot. 62 , 271–276. Shalev P. D. The effect of cytokinins on vitrification in melon and carnation

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71 76 Fischer, N. L., Burgess, L. W., Tousson, T. A., and Nelson, P. E. 1982. Carnation leaves as a substrate for preserving cultures of Fusarium species. Phytopathology

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