Europe. Some governments follow Policy A (catchingup with the Romanies as a minority), while others follow Policy B (economic uplift of the Romanies). In the following paper we investigate the present (2018–2019) situation of the Romani population of
The rosy reports of the EU on Central and Eastern European regional development and EU-wide regional convergence are based on the GDP per capita positions of NUTS-2 regions, expressed in percentage of the EU average. This approach is reflected also in the regulation of eligibility for Objective 1 structural transfers. The article analyses whether this relative measurement of catching up or lagging behind is realistic, or other methods yield different results. We reveal that by substituting absolute numbers (that is, GDP per capita in PPS) for percentages, the position of the Central and Eastern European regions related to the EU average turns just the opposite. Calculated in PPS, the difference between the per capita GDP of almost 90% of the new members’ NUTS-2 regions and the EU average increased between 1995 and 2006. This puts both EU cohesion policy and the prospects of the Central and Eastern European region into a different light.
The paper reviews the commercial banking sector’s development during the booming years before the current global crisis in Southeast Europe. Based on the analysis of a comprehensive dataset, a common, simplified economic model could be outlined for this period, where GDP growth has been fuelled by rapid credit growth. The latter was boosted both by foreign funding and swift deposit growth volumes. Nevertheless, beside the favourable catch-up process, the level of external imbalances, credit growth and currency mismatches raised sustainability concerns and the risk of overheating.
in the frame of U-KNOW research project (mimeo).
von Tunzelmann, G. N. (2004): Network Alignment in the Catching-up Economies of
One of the motivations for a country to join the European Union is the belief that this will boost short- and long-run incomes. Researchers have tested the hypothesis of income convergence in different settings using either regression or unit root analysis, with mixed results. In this paper, we use both methods on the same samples over a significant time period. This allows us to judge differences in results across varied time-frames and methodologies. The focus of these tests is on convergence to German and EMU average incomes by Eastern European countries and those within the Euro-zone from 1971–2007. The evidence for convergence is mixed. Among the Euro-zone countries, there is more evidence of convergence in the 1970s and 1980s than recently. There is significant evidence that Eastern Europe experienced convergence and that capital formation was one of the root causes. While the results do not support the hypothesis that joining the EU increases convergence, reforms undertaken in the 1990s by Eastern European countries in preparation for joining may have helped them to “catch up”, even if the act of joining the EU did not directly impact convergence.
A recent international conference, entitled Transition in Perspective offered an opportunity for the author to take stock of the achievements of the post-socialist economies since the regime change in 1989/90. The analysis was carried out in two dimensions, in the political and the economic one. Regarding the first one, the record is largely positive: many countries have regained their independence, although in some cases the price was high and the fundamentals of democracy are still missing. In civil wars and inter-ethnic fights far too many people were killed and/or displaced. Since about 2000, many countries fell in the hand of autocratic leaders. In terms of catching-up with the income levels of the advanced economies, less than half of the countries were truly successful. The people have good reasons to be disappointed.
more successful catch-up countries. During the catching-up period, the Korean national innovation system was characterised by strong firms but rather weak universities in terms of R&D activities (Choung and Hwang 2000 ; Eom and Lee 2010 ). More