Après avoir brièvement rappelé les circonstances historiques de sa construction, Szilveszter Terdik fait l’inventaire de la décoration religieuse de la cathédrale. Il montre notamment l’effort de fidélité aux grands principes de l’art byzantin tout en décrivant certaines inflexions dévoilant l’intention de rapprochement avec Rome ; double tendance renforcée par l’implication de deux artistes aux parcours différents.
The fragmentary statue of St Catherine belonging to the International Gothic on the early 15th century, discovered in the ruins of Eger Cathedral is published and dated on the basis of its stylistic features and its dress.
The subject of this article is the tomb of Kazimir the Great, located within the easternmost arcade of the Cracow cathedral ambulatory. Its importance has been acknowledged in numerous studies but there are many questions which previous scholarship failed to consider in depth. I therefore focus on two outstanding issues. Firstly I examine the implications of the fact that the effigy was left incomplete, and underline the importance of tomb design in Hungary. Secondly I emphasise the centrality of Louis the Great's role in creating his predecessor's tomb at Cracow. In addition, I provide a new description of the tomb in its present state, based on the examination of visual records and the unpublished documents in the Cracow archives. Furthermore, I undertake a stylistic analysis of the tomb giving consideration to the achievements of the most accomplished sculptural workshops of contemporary Central Europe, but focusing on the Hungarian tomb sculpture and metalwork. This analysis suggests that the sculptor of Kazimir's tomb worked in the employ of Louis the Great and his style was rooted in the tradition of Hungarian sculpture. It appears that the miscellaneous stylistic references apparent in the Wawel tomb are due to his extensive knowledge of contemporary artistic trends. Finally, it is proposed that the tomb was constructed some time between 1371 and 1375.
The study focuses on some original parts of the second building of Gyulafehérvár cathedral which are now missing, such as its original sanctuary, which was demolished soon after completion and replaced by another. Also discussed are a number of carvings used in a secondary or tertiary setting, as spolia, originally made around 1200 or at the beginning of the 13th century, and then removed from their original context. Fragments of chevron-decorated carvings can be arranged along an arch that, because of its size, can only be identified with the transverse arch of the original apse of the sanctuary. The transverse arch on the face of the Gyulafehérvár apse, built around 1200, was – as far as we know today – the largest structural element in Central Europe decorated with a “Norman” chevron ornament. From the exterior decoration of the original apse a surprisingly large number of richly decorated details still survive. The entablature high on top of the polygonal apse of the present-day sanctuary is richly decorated with figures and other motifs in high relief. The placement of these carvings is clearly secondary. Obviously pieces from the entablature of the 12th-century apse were re-used in the 13th-century Gothic apse (and later when it was rebuilt in the 18th century). The thematic focus of the Gyulafehérvár cornice also relates to the figural decoration of the capitals inside the sanctuary. In addition to this series, about a dozen or so other figural carvings from this same period adorn the church. The two reliefs depicting St. Michael, both found in secondary placement high on the outside wall of the sanctuary, are the most important of these carvings.
Marble samples from major Italian quarries and from the Como Cathedral were analyzed for their trace element content, which is indicative of their provenance. Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th and U elements were determined by neutron activation analysis. Results as well as their precision and accuracy are presented and discussed. Data treatment has allowed to characterize the marble quarries on the basis of their trace element content, to identify the provenance of the marble used in the Como Cathedral and to show differences in the element distribution of new and weathered marble samples from the same quarry.
A tanulmány a firenzei Dóm kupolája megépítésének négy fontos kérdéskörével foglalkozik. Megpróbálja rekonstruálni az építést segítő függő állványok szerkezeti kialakítását. Vizsgálja, milyen módon kellett Brunelleschinek a kupola szerkezetét kialakítania, hogy arra az állvány felfüggeszthető legyen, illetve, hogy milyen módon tette lehetővé a spirálisan haladó, halszálkás falazási mód a kupola ideiglenes alátámasztás (zsaluzat) nélküli megépítését. Végül választ keres, mi módon tűzhették ki a sarokíveket, és hogyan tudták a kitűzés helyességét ellenőrizni. A kitűzés módjának tárgyalásában Massimiliano Ricci professzor elméletét fejleszti tovább.
The reform of the Council of Trent made great influence on the liturgical development of all Europe. That was also the fact in Hungary: in 1630 the local synod of Nagyszombat accepted the introduction of the Tridentine rite into the Hungarian Church. Nevertheless some of dioceses - existed more independently - protested against this decision and insisted on the continuation of their own medieval traditions. Among these dioceses Zagreb was the greatest “Protestant”. The cathedral itself guarded his medieval tradition till 1788. Through this largely documented processional practise of Zagreb Cathedral (ten manuscripts and one printed processional from the 14th up to the 18th centuries) one can follow the particularities of a liturgy preserved isolated: the basically remained liturgical chants were influenced by some new practise, mainly simplifications but additions as well.
2016–2019 között végeztünk feltárásokat az egri várban. Ezek során a vár, illetve az egri püspöki központ 11–13. századi történetére vonatkozó fontos új megfigyeléseket tehettünk. A régészeti megfigyelések alapján a vár legkorábbi előzményeként egy 11. század első feléből származó királyi udvarház épületeit azonosítottuk. Véleményünk szerint ez fogadta be az 1068 után először ideiglenesen, majd 1091 után véglegesen az egyházmegye központját, amely korábban Bihar várában lehetett. Rekonstruáltuk a román kori székesegyház építéstörténetét, és nagyrészt feltártuk a székesegyház északi oldalán a 12. század folyamán több lépésben kiépült káptalani kerengőt és püs pöki palotát, valamint több ponton azonosítottuk a 13. század első felében kiépülő, két részből álló első püspökvár falait (1. kép).
Between 2016 and 2019, we conducted a series of excavations in Eger Castle, in the course of which we gained a number of new insights regarding the 11th–13th century history of the castle and the episcopal seat. On the testimony of the written sources and the archaeological record, the castle’s earliest antecedent was a royal manor house from the first half of the 11th century. In our view, this building functioned as the centre of the diocese – which had earlier probably been located in Bihar Castle – first temporarily after 1068, then, after 1091, permanently. We were able to reconstruct the architectural history of the Romanesque cathedral and we excavated the cathedral’s cloister and the episcopal palace on the cathedral’s northern side, built in a number of successive phases. We also succeeded in identifying the walls of the first episcopal castle built in the first half of the 13th century (Fig. 1).
In 1913 László Éber wrote a paper about the rood screen of the baroque cathedral of Vác. He was the first who revealed that sixteen pieces from the renaissance-style carved stone elements of the rood screen were made in the late medieval period. the stone material of the pieces is marl of the Buda region. there were other stone carvings masoned in the cathedral: four dividing pillars of this balustrade, other two with Jagellonian signs from red marble and two tables with the coat of arms of Miklós Báthori (bishop of Vác, 1474–1506). The balustrade elements can be seen in the baroque cathedral thought to be in strong connections with some dividing pillars from Buda castle. there were two ideas about the dating of the Vác balustrade: either they were made during the reign of King Matthias corvinus or after his death during the Jagellonian era. In 1992 árpád Mikó discovered a barrel on the backside of one pillar, which is one of the emblems of King Matthias. there is another important question: what was the original finding place of the pillars? Éber wrote, that it is plausible that Miklós Báthori was the order of the balustrade and it was stood in the medieval cathedral of Vác, which was destroyed during the Ottoman era. is it possible that they came from the site, which now laid under and around the baroque Franciscan church and monastery in Vác? I examined the written sources from the 18–19th centuries and it turned out, that there is no information about it.
On the other hand, there are several other renaissance fragments from Vác, most of them were also made of marl of the Buda region. the fragments kept by the local museum came into light by archaeological excavations between 1912 and 2019, on the site where the medieval episcopate laid. From the first time, researchers (based on Éber) wrote that the findings stand close to the ones in the cathedral’s rood screen. Most of them are well known – we could say – because tibor Koppány published every known piece in 1994. He wrote about a few other balustrade fragments too, but his descriptions are very short, and we can see drawings of only ca. one-third of all pieces. so i decided to see the original fragments and found that those small pieces kept by the museum don’t come from that balustrade can be seen today in the cathedral.
The most important difference is the shaping of the baluster’s foot rings. they are divided: there is a vertical section and after that, the ring widens into a curved form. Furthermore, the image field of the dividing pillars framed in a more complex mode. On the image fields probably tapes, garlands, trophies were carved, but there is not any intact one, only very small pieces, which came to light in every corner of the site. so the balustrade’s original place couldn’t be determined certainly. nevertheless, because of the fine surfaces of the carvings, i think the balustrade stood inside, maybe in the medieval cathedral, perhaps in the chapel of saint nicolaus where Miklós Báthori was buried.
Among the early renaissance-style pieces known from the medieval Hungarian Kingdom, there are a few analogies. First of all, we can see the very same solution on the foot rings of the Jagellonian era dividing pillars from Hungarian red marble in Vác. they belong to a group of red marble carvings: the other elements of this group can be found in Buda and esztergom. Furthermore, from the marl of the Buda region stone material i know only one other example where the baluster foot rings are similar: the gallery of the castle chapel in siklós. so i think we can say certainly that the „new” balustrade fragments from Vác were made during the Jagellonian era.