treatment depends on the type of soil. For sandy soil, cement is used to improve the foundation characteristics. The improvement can be classified into many types depending on the process involved like material selection, ground condition, structure type
Authors:A. Usherov-Marshak, O. Mchedlov-Petrossyan, and A. Sinyakin
Thermokinetic analysis of cements hydration under nonisothermal conditions was performed. The influence of the application
moment, intensity and duration of heat effect on the velocity and completeness of the character of hydration was estimated.
Authors:Barbara Pacewska, I. Wilińska, and G. Blonkowski
The paper describes an attempt of chemical activation of fly ash and claims the usefulness of combination of such investigation
methods as calorimetry and infrared absorption for investigations of early periods of cement hydration. The research samples
were cement pastes made with an addition of fly ash and admixtures of chemical activators, CaCl2, Na2SO4 and NaOH, whereas a cement paste without fly ash addition and a cement-fly ash paste (both without admixtures) were used
as reference samples. In order to investigate early periods of cement pastes hydration, the amount and rate of heat release
were registered, and IR spectrums were checked at appointed hydration moments.
As a result, it was shown that the combination of calorimetric and IR absorption methods in the investigations of early periods
of cement hydration was useful. It was confirmed that the use of chemical activators CaCl2, Na2SO4 and NaOH accelerated the hydration of cement pastes containing fly ash additive in early hours after adding water. The action
of activators on hydrating cement system is different for each of investigated compounds.
The effect of PbO on cement hydration kinetics by calorimetric method
was evaluated as a first step in this project. Substantial retardation of
reaction with water at early stages with subsequent intensification of the
process was found. As the next step, the model systems covering pure cement
minerals and their mixtures of various composition as well as soluble Pb salts
were taken into account to elucidate the mechanism of delayed, by quite good
formation of products in the so-called post-induction period. The precipitation
of sulphate, forming very thin impermeable layer seems to be responsible for
this delaying effect in case of cement, however the other reactions of Pb
compounds in alkaline environment of hydrating calcium silicate are not out
of importance. In order to prove this, the studies of chemical composition
in small areas were also carried out.
The stability of supersulphated cement (SSC) is investigated. The hydration products of cement pastes prepared at a water
cement ratio of 0.27 were determined by thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ettringite, one of the initial
hydration products, is shown to be stable under conditions of storage at 25, 50 and 75°C and when subject to relative humidities
of 100, 53 and 11% of water vapour in each case. The effect of drying on ettringite stability at the higher temperatures is
discussed in relation to the relative humidity.
The stability of Supersulphated Cement (SSC) is investigated at 95°C when subjected to relative humidities of 100, 53 and
11% of water vapour. Previously  investigations at 25, 50, 75°C under the same conditions of humidity reported the stability
of ettringite, one of the initial hydration products. At 95°C, decomposition of ettringite, is found at all humidities and
is rapid at 100% relative humidity. The hydration products of cement pastes at a water cement ratio of 0.27 were determined
by thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
The formation of the hydragarnet, plazolite is recorded during the decomposition/dehydration process enhanced by possible
carbonation. Rehydration studies on the products after storage for up to 9 months were carried out using distilled water and
the samples tested for ettringite content. It is concluded that ettringite in SSC is inherently unstable at 95°C.
Sulphate resistance and passivation ability of the mortars made from pozzolan cement of CEM IV/A (P) type according to European
Standard EN 197-1 (zeolite blended cement with 60.82 mass% of PC clinker, 35.09 mass% of zeolite and 4.09 mass% of gypsum
abbreviated as ZBC) and ordinary Portland cement (abbreviated as PC) are introduced. Resistance tests were performed in water
and 5% sodium sulphate solution (both 20°C) for 720 days. The increased sulphate resistance of pozzolan cement relative to
that of PC was found. The key quantitative insight into the hydrate phase behaviour is given by thermal analysis. This is
due to pozzolanic reaction of zeolite with PC resulting in reduction of the formed Ca(OH)2 opposite to the reference PC. Ability of pozzolan cements with 15 to 50 mass% of zeolite to protect steel against corrosion
was verified in 20°C/85% RH-wet air within 180-day cure. Steel was not corroded in the mortars made with pozzolan cement containing
up to 35 mass% of zeolite. Pozzolan cement of CEM IV/A (P) type containing 35 mass% of zeolite is a suitable cementitious
material for concrete structures exposed to sulphate attack. Steel is protected against corrosion by this pozzolan cement
in the same measure as the reference PC.
Authors:J. Dweck, A. Cherem da Cunha, Carolina Pinto, J. Pereira Gonçalves, and P. Büchler
When cement hydrated compositions are analyzed by usual initial mass basis TG curves to calculate mass losses, the higher
is the amount of additive added or is the combined water content, the higher is the cement ‘dilution’ in the initial mass
of the sample. In such cases, smaller mass changes in the different mass loss steps are obtained, due to the actual smaller
content of cement in the initial mass compositions. To have a same mass basis of comparison, and to avoid erroneous results
of initial components content there from, thermal analysis data and curves have to be transformed on cement calcined basis,
i.e. on the basis of cement oxides mass present in the calcined samples or on the sample cement initial mass basis.
The paper shows and discusses the fundamentals of these bases of calculation, with examples on free and combined water analysis,
on calcium sulfate hydration during false cement set and on quantitative evaluation and comparison of pozzolanic materials
Authors:Caroline A. Pinto, J. Dweck, J. J. Sansalone, F. K. Cartledge, M. E. Tittlebaum, and P. M. Büchler
Summary This paper presents a study of a cement-based solidification/stabilization process of storm water runoff solid residuals by non-conventional differential thermal analysis (NCDTA). The study was used to investigate the early hydration stages of a type I Portland cement containing the raw residual, two fractions of the residuals (coarse and fine), and two additives (quicklime and sodium bentonite). During these stages the fine fraction of the residuals retards the hydration reactions more than the coarse one, and both fractions have components that are reactive during the hydration process. When sodium bentonite is present in the pastes, the higher the initial cement content of the pastes, the lesser is the reactivity of the residuals. The presence of quicklime, which undergoes simultaneous highly exothermal hydration, accelerates the cement hydration reactions as well as those due to the presence of the residual solids. In these quicklime-containing compositions, the effect of sodium bentonite is similar to that when no quicklime is added, except when the whole residuals are used.
In the present work, a Portland cement blended with calcium carbonate is being used to study the solidification/stabilization
(S/S) of a Brazilian tanning waste arising from leather production. Chromium is the element of greatest concern in this waste,
but the waste also contains a residual organic material. Using thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG)
to identify and quantify the main hydrated phases present in the pastes, this paper presents a comparative study between the
effects of Wyoming and Organophilic bentonites (B and OB) on cement hydration. Samples containing combinations of cement, B, OB and waste have been subjected to thermal analysis after different setting times during the first 28 days of the waste S/S
process. Both bentonites affect the cement hydration, with no significant differences in hydration degree after 1 week. This
work shows further examples of the great utility of thermal analysis techniques in the study of very complex systems containing
both crystalline and amorphous mineral materials as well as organics.