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. Critical Readings in Translation Studies 2010 Herero-Olaizola, A. 2007. The Censorship Files: Latin American Writers and

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Recently, we marked 80 years since the first appearance of Molnar’s novel in Croatia (the translation by L. Matijević was published by Minerva in 1933). The novel was first published in 1906. Like other classical works of children’s literature that entered Croatian children’s literature, The Paul Street Boys had to be adapted to the literary and socio-historical context. Turbulent relations between Croatia and Hungary in the early 20th century, on one hand, and the changes in the social context, in particular after 1945, on the other hand, had a considerable impact on Croatian editions of the novel. This study focuses on censorship and adaptation of the text to the circumstances in which it was published. Interventions introduced by the translators and editors that very often went deep into the content of the novel did not have an adverse effect on the popularity of the book with the children’s audience. However, they certainly testify about the times when ideological correctness of the published book was paramount to all other considerations, even esthetical and ethical ones.

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non-translation categories’ (2000:96) lists seven categories of non-translation: omission, repetition, language closeness, bilingualism, cultural distance, institutionalised censorship, ideological embargo (96–97). The final two categories on the list

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Abstract

The article explores the strategies for avoiding offensive language in the Slovenian subtitles of 50 English-language films. The analysis encompassed all examples of strong language in each of the films and established that almost half of the more than 4000 instances of such language were not preserved in Slovenian. Profanity was avoided more often in films that made more frequent use of it. In less than one-fifth of the instances were there objective reasons for omitting it; the remaining instances can be regarded as (self-)censorship. On a few occasions, offensive language also appears to have been lost in translation because translators failed to grasp the connotative meaning of the original terms. Four strategies for avoiding offensive language were identified: the most frequently employed strategy was deletion, followed by modulation of register, while the strategies substitution with a pronoun and radical change of meaning were used far less often. Furthermore, the study has shown that avoiding offensive language may cause certain shifts on the macrostructural level of a film, i.e. alter the audience's understanding of the plot, the characterization, the perception of relationships between characters, etc.

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Institutional collecting versus ‘live art’

The acquisition policy of the Moravian Gallery in Brno against the backdrop of contemporary art and other activities of the Sixties in Brno

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Petr Ingerle

This paper focuses on the relation between the acquisition activity of the Moravian Gallery in Brno (officially founded in 1961) and the then current artistic production in the region (especially the program of the Brno House of Arts). While the collection of modern art — that originated before the official foundation of the gallery — was built in correlation with the current interwar exhibition activities of various art associations, in the 1960s the Gallery’s acquisition policy becomes selective. The reasons may be found in the diversification of modernity — personal preferences — political pressures — censorship — and/or the inability of the institution to deal with dematerialized art and newly emerging art forms. The text examines the position of the progressive trends of neo-avant-garde and conceptual art within the professional (institutionalized) art scene through specific examples of work, from the perspective of a significant Czech institution. Specifically, the essay deals with the works of art by Milan Grygar, Miroslav Sonny Halas and an informal group called ‘The Brno Bohemians.’ It also contains a brief excursus on a possible analogy between the authors of graphic scores in the Sixties and Seventies and the visuality of records and scores of Leoš Janáček, one of the most significant composers of the avant-garde.

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The functioning of a civil society allows for a variety of possibilities. At the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, enlightened literature and the few journals reached only a small segment of the Hungarian population. Correspondence, a significant part of civil society, compensated for what was missing. The acceptance of free thought and pluralism by the elite prepared the way for their eventual acceptance by a growing number of individuals during the Age of Reform.

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In contrast to the very high estimation of the roman censorship in times of the high republic Livy underlines in his account of the first appointment of roman censors the small beginnig of the magistracy. It has not been easy for scholers to classify this roman institution properly. As in so many other fields of roman public law the theories of Theodor Mommsen had a great influence to later scholers. Methodology applied by Mommsen was characterized strongly by the systematic approach, creating a system which tended to be its own truth. In opposition to Mommsen the present study wants to emphasize the chronological aspect presenting the development of the magistracy from its beginning in the year 443 B.C. until the last censorship helt in roman republic. Using this different methodology the paper wants to contribute to a better understanding of the competences of roman censors and to enlighten its influence to the organization of the roman res publica.

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This paper discusses how Russian anti-proverbs function in modern speech and mass media. Today, as one consequence of the democratization of speech, the abolition of censorship, and the growing influence of youth speech, this genre of folklore has become very active, exerting significant influence on Russian standard language. Relying on the definitions of the term “anti-proverb” given by Wolfgang Mieder, the authors describe the characteristics and spheres of application of some of these expressions. In addition, the authors propose a classification of Russian anti-proverbs, demonstrate their different properties and applications, refer to their sources and describe prototypes of anti-proverbs and antidictums. Moreover, the authors attempt to propose a sociolinguistic characterization of anti-proverbs, such as “Old — New”, “Traditional — Untraditional”, “Neutral — Ironical” etc., as well as a complex lexicographical description of anti-proverbs.

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In an atheist society, such as the communist one, all forms of the sacred were anathematized and fiercly sanctioned. Nevertheless, despite these ideological barriers, important articles and volumes of Byzantine — and sometimes Gregorian — musicological research were published in totalitarian Romania. Numerous Romanian scholars participated at international congresses and symposia, thus benefiting of scholarships and research stages not only in the socialist states, but also in places regarded as ‘affected by viruses,’ such as the USA or the libraries on Mount Athos (Greece). This article discusses the mechanisms through which the research on religious music in Romania managed to avoid ideological censorship, the forms of camouflage and dissimulation of musicological information with religious subject that managed to integrate and even impose over the aesthetic visions of the Party. The article also refers to cultural politics enthusiastically supporting research and valuing the heritage of ancient music as a fundamental source for composers and their creations dedicated to the masses.

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In reliability and survival-time studies one frequently encounters the followingrandom censorship model:X 1,Y 1,X 2,Y 2,… is an independent sequence of nonnegative rv's, theX n's having common distributionF and theY n's having common distributionG, Z n=min{X n,Y n },T n=I[X n <-Y n]; ifX n represents the (potential) time to death of then-th individual in the sample andY n is his (potential) censoring time thenZ n represents the actual observation time andT n represents the type of observation (T n=O is a censoring,T n=1 is a death). One way to estimateF from the observationsZ 1.T 1,Z 2,T 2, … (and without recourse to theX n's) is by means of theproduct limit estimator (Kaplan andMeier [6]). It is shown that a.s., uniformly on [0,T] ifH(T )<1 wherel−H=(l−F) (l−G), uniformly onR if whereT F=sup {x:F(x)<1}; rates of convergence are also established. These results are used in Part II of this study to establish strong consistency of some density and failure rate estimators based on .

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