, M., Jestoi, M. and Rizzo, A. (2002): Controlling infection of cereal grain by toxigenic Fusarium spp. using fungal competitors. Proceedings of the 2002 Brighton Conference — Pests and Diseases, in press.
A survey on man-made (137Cs and 90Sr) and natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 228Ra, 226Ra) in cereal crops was conducted by collecting 66 cereal samples at 36 flour mills. This was the first time that natural radionuclides were included in such a survey in Finland. Based on the results new domestic reference concentrations for cereals were suggested: 2 mBq·kg−1 for 238U and 232Th, 100 mBq·kg−1 for 228Ra and 200 mBq·kg−1 for 226Ra. The mean committed effective dose from ingestion of all radionuclides in cereal products was assessed as 30 μSv per year. Currently, the man-made radionuclides contribute only one percent to the total dose whereas in 1963 their proportion was about half and in 1987 about 20%, one year after the Chernobyl accident. Even so, the doses are very small and pose insignificant health risk to the consumers.
Archaeobotany, the study of plant macrofossils (seeds and fruits) obtained from archaeological excavations, becomes particularly important when there is very little or no archaeological, written or iconographical material available about the cultivation of the plants found. This is particularly the case in relation to the early Hungarian settlers. The most significant event of the 10th century in the Carpathian Basin was the Hungarian conquest, yet this is the most fiercely debated period of Hungarian history, and the subject, in some cases, of extreme views. The information available on the way of life of the early Hungarians is very sparse, especially as regards farming and crop production skills. The conquering Hungarians were “semi-nomadic”. This may equally include mobile pastoralism and a limited extent of tillage and plant cultivation. Other archaeobotanical evidence suggests that the early Hungarians were not nomadic. There are very few seed remains directly relevant to the period of the Hungarian Conquest: the leading strata of early Hungarian society probably practised mobile pastoralism of a fundamentally Turkish character. It can be presumed that plant cultivation was the occupation assigned to common people who pursued a more sedentary way of life. It was probably these people whose plant remains were found in Lébény-Billedomb (near Gyor) in 1993 and are presented in this paper. This is the first evidence of plant cultivation by the early Hungarians. The finds from the 10th century settlement are rich in cereal species such as common wheat, barley, rye and millet.
Authors:M. I. Kiseleva, A. V. Ovsyankina, T. M. Kolomiets, N. S. Zhemchuzhina, and A. P. Glinushkin
Dudka , I. A. ( 1982 ): Methods of experimental mycology . Sciences Dumka, Kiev 550 p.
Gagkaeva , T. Yu. , Gavrilov , O. P. , Levitin , M. M. and Novozhilov , K. V. ( 2011 ): Fusarium of cereals . Supplement to the journal Plant