The effects of heating temperature of pyrolysis and activation processes on the textural and chemical properties of the chars
and activated carbons prepared from oil palm stones, an abundant palm-oil mill solid waste, were studied. For both pyrolysis
and activation, relatively high temperature was essential to develop pore structures in the chars and activated carbons. However,
too high temperature would cause pore narrowing and pore enlargement during pyrolysis and activation, respectively. The temperature
had an insignificant effect on the inorganic components of the chars and activated carbons, but affected their surface organic
functional groups significantly.
[ 1 ].
Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is a source of severe environmental pollution and is classified as a dangerous waste, containing several toxic compounds [ 2 ]. Provided that oil shale is to be exploited and retorted
, gasification direct combustion and co-combustion [ 2 ]. Pyrolysis as the first chemical step in gasification and combustion plays an important role because its conditions highly affect the yields of char and its reactivity [ 3 , 4 ]. The conversion of char
during combustion. Accordingly, to develop non-halogenated flame-retardant system becomes an attractive and emergent subject. Amongst non-halogenated flame retardants, intumescent flame retardants (IFR) with particular char-yielding properties have been
there has not been any report about the design of reactors for efficient thermochemical conversion of wheat DGs (WDGs). Pyrolysis is the first chemical step in gasification, and the conversion of char occurs at higher temperatures when most of thermal
; Krese et al., 2018 ). As seen in Fig. 1 , three products are obtained from pyrolysis; bio-oil (condensable volatile, liquid product), bio-char (carbonaceous residue, solid product), and bio-gas products (non-condensable). The first product can be
occlusion of gaseous products of BMC decomposition (CO 2 and H 2 O) in the char formed from PET. Since Mg(OH) 2 upon heating undergoes dehydration, occlusion of some amounts of water in the formed char/MgO solid material, similar like in the solid formed
Char and tar derived from pyrolysis of Uruguayan Eucalyptus wood has been evaluated as raw materials for the preparation of
high mechanical resistance activated carbon pellets. Thermogravimetric analysis was used as the main technique for studying
tar and char pyrolysis in N2 and CO2 atmospheres, and to determine the best conditions for CO2 activation of the carbon pellets. Results indicated that activated carbon pellets with high surface area and good mechanical
resistance were obtained by CO2 gasification at 1098 K. Pellets properties can be explained as due to the independent contribution of each component.
A set of seven bituminous coal chars has been characterised by IR spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and elemental
analysis. FTIR study provided suitable information to establish differences between coal samples according to their chemical
compositions. The reactivity of these samples was also studied and correlated with the coal parameters of mean vitrinite reflectance,
fuel ratio and H/C ratio. The data suggest that reactivity as determined can be correlated with the mean vitrinite reflectance,
fuel ratio and H/C ratio (0.90). The order of reactivity of samples were; Amasra (S1) (Rm= 0.65)>Azdavay (S4) (Rm=0.99)Armutcuk (S2) (Rm=0.81)Acenta (S3) (Rm=0.92)>Ac2l2k (S6) (Rm=1.11) Cay (S5) (Rm=1.03)>Sogutozu (S7) (Rm=2.14).