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comparative studies dedicated to this figure with a trans-cultural and trans-religious presence. It is not my intention to further develop the topic here, but a brief description might be useful for a better understanding of the charm my article deals with

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INTRODUCTION In 1594, Gwen ferch Ellis became the first person in Wales executed for witchcraft. 2 Known locally as a healer, it was Gwen’s association with healing charms that played a part in implicating her in the charges of witchcraft. The

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INTRODUCTION The Devil is a relatively common image in Latvian folklore. Although he is not often mentioned in charms, and due to the relatively short form of the genre, not all of the features and expressions of this character are understandable

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attempt to give a brief description of the use of verbal charms and other means of asking for supernatural help in a few folk narratives, fairytales and legends. The ancient Persian word for magic spell, i.e., afsun, which was often used by Ferdowsi

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There are seven silver and brass charms called khiar (“cucumber”) in the Armenian History Museum’s collection of amulets. They originated in Moks, Gyavash and other regions of Western Armenia and in Yerevan (Eastern Armenia) in the 19th century. These ornamented charms with pendants and chains are prismatic and cylindrical in shape. They are hollow and are supposed to have written prayers inside them, though only one paper is preserved.Like the plant itself, these khiar-s symbolize the phallus with its connotations of fertility, fruitfulness, renewal, rebirth, revival. These objects are also believed to give protection from evil spirits and the evil eye.Owing to these meanings women used to wear khiar-s, believing that the objects would protect them from harm and help them to have children. In popular beliefs it was common to ascribe preternatural power to parts of the human body. And the most important parts were the endings — head, feet, hair, nails and phallus, which embodied the idea of growth and initiated life.Phallic decorations of different periods are valuable not only from the point of view of folk beliefs but also as precious samples of decorative art.

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Discussion of religious figures appears consistently in surviving charm examples from the medieval period to the present, with key Christian figures such as Jesus, Mary, and the saints featuring heavily in the European corpus from which many of the

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INTRODUCTION In this presentation, I will analyse the formulaic use of a magic charm in an Argentinean folktale, dealing with an invocation to a “wand of virtue”, the proper use of which shows the performative force of language. Thanks to this charm

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INTRODUCTION Belief narratives or, according to Bascom ( Bascom 1965 :4), legends and charms, constitute two different folklore genres with distinctive characteristics, ways of transmission, performance and function. The study of their relation is

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przełożona przez Stanisława Ząbkowica [Hammer of the Witches. Behaviour and medicine in the case of charms and also the way to protect against them, included in two parts. The book of human knowledge necessary and conformable with Church learning. / Mainly

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Abstract

The legend of St. Sisynnios has been widespread in both Christian and popular Ethiopian tradition up to the present time. It exists in the form of written texts in the Ge’ez language, inserted in so-called magic scrolls among other closely connected texts of both magical and religious character. These scrolls have a protective function, and St. Sisynnios is venerated by the Ethiopian Church. There are two versions of his life. The shorter one comprises part of the Synaxarion whilethe longer one is included in a corpus of hagiographical compilations entitled “The Lives of the Martyrs”. Both of these were translated from the Arabic prototype, borrowed from the mother Coptic Church of Alexandria. There is a notable interconnection between the legend in the amulets and the religious texts. It is unknown whether the text of the legend once existed in form of verbal charm or not. In any case, different elements of the saint’s life passed to the legend. Some have remained unchanged while others have undergone transformations or lost some elements. It is important to study different elements of the legend using the examples conserved in the available manuscript scrolls. Analysis of these interconnections and the evolution of the text constitutes the basis of the present research.

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